Jackson Core Source Code

Jackson is "the Java JSON library" or "the best JSON parser for Java". Or simply as "JSON for Java".

Jackson Core Source Code files are provided in the source packge (jackson-core-2.12.4-sources.jar). You can download it at Jackson Maven Website.

You can also browse Jackson Core Source Code below:

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com/fasterxml/jackson/core/json/WriterBasedJsonGenerator.java

package com.fasterxml.jackson.core.json;

import java.io.*;
import java.math.BigDecimal;
import java.math.BigInteger;

import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.*;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.io.CharTypes;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.io.CharacterEscapes;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.io.IOContext;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.io.NumberOutput;

/**
 * {@link JsonGenerator} that outputs JSON content using a {@link java.io.Writer}
 * which handles character encoding.
 */
public class WriterBasedJsonGenerator
    extends JsonGeneratorImpl
{
    final protected static int SHORT_WRITE = 32;

    final protected static char[] HEX_CHARS = CharTypes.copyHexChars();

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Configuration
    /**********************************************************
     */

    final protected Writer _writer;

    /**
     * Character used for quoting JSON Object property names
     * and String values.
     */
    protected char _quoteChar;

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Output buffering
    /**********************************************************
     */
    
    /**
     * Intermediate buffer in which contents are buffered before
     * being written using {@link #_writer}.
     */
    protected char[] _outputBuffer;

    /**
     * Pointer to the first buffered character to output
     */
    protected int _outputHead;

    /**
     * Pointer to the position right beyond the last character to output
     * (end marker; may point to position right beyond the end of the buffer)
     */
    protected int _outputTail;

    /**
     * End marker of the output buffer; one past the last valid position
     * within the buffer.
     */
    protected int _outputEnd;

    /**
     * Short (14 char) temporary buffer allocated if needed, for constructing
     * escape sequences
     */
    protected char[] _entityBuffer;

    /**
     * When custom escapes are used, this member variable is used
     * internally to hold a reference to currently used escape
     */
    protected SerializableString _currentEscape;

    /**
     * Intermediate buffer in which characters of a String are copied
     * before being encoded.
     *
     * @since 2.10
     */
    protected char[] _copyBuffer;

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Life-cycle
    /**********************************************************
     */

    @Deprecated // since 2.10
    public WriterBasedJsonGenerator(IOContext ctxt, int features,
            ObjectCodec codec, Writer w) {
        this(ctxt, features, codec, w, JsonFactory.DEFAULT_QUOTE_CHAR);
    }

    /**
     * @since 2.10
     */
    public WriterBasedJsonGenerator(IOContext ctxt, int features,
            ObjectCodec codec, Writer w,
            char quoteChar)
    
    {
        super(ctxt, features, codec);
        _writer = w;
        _outputBuffer = ctxt.allocConcatBuffer();
        _outputEnd = _outputBuffer.length;
        _quoteChar = quoteChar;
        if (quoteChar != '"') { // since 2.10
            _outputEscapes = CharTypes.get7BitOutputEscapes(quoteChar);
        }
    }

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Overridden configuration, introspection methods
    /**********************************************************
     */

    @Override
    public Object getOutputTarget() {
        return _writer;
    }

    @Override
    public int getOutputBuffered() {
        // Assuming tail and head are kept but... trust and verify:
        int len = _outputTail - _outputHead;
        return Math.max(0, len);
    }

    // json does allow this so
    @Override
    public boolean canWriteFormattedNumbers() { return true; }

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Overridden methods
    /**********************************************************
     */

    @Override
    public void writeFieldName(String name)  throws IOException
    {
        int status = _writeContext.writeFieldName(name);
        if (status == JsonWriteContext.STATUS_EXPECT_VALUE) {
            _reportError("Can not write a field name, expecting a value");
        }
        _writeFieldName(name, (status == JsonWriteContext.STATUS_OK_AFTER_COMMA));
    }

    @Override
    public void writeFieldName(SerializableString name) throws IOException
    {
        // Object is a value, need to verify it's allowed
        int status = _writeContext.writeFieldName(name.getValue());
        if (status == JsonWriteContext.STATUS_EXPECT_VALUE) {
            _reportError("Can not write a field name, expecting a value");
        }
        _writeFieldName(name, (status == JsonWriteContext.STATUS_OK_AFTER_COMMA));
    }

    protected final void _writeFieldName(String name, boolean commaBefore) throws IOException
    {
        if (_cfgPrettyPrinter != null) {
            _writePPFieldName(name, commaBefore);
            return;
        }
        // for fast+std case, need to output up to 2 chars, comma, dquote
        if ((_outputTail + 1) >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        if (commaBefore) {
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = ',';
        }
        // Alternate mode, in which quoting of field names disabled?
        if (_cfgUnqNames) {
            _writeString(name);
            return;
        }
        // we know there's room for at least one more char
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        // The beef:
        _writeString(name);
        // and closing quotes; need room for one more char:
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }

    protected final void _writeFieldName(SerializableString name, boolean commaBefore) throws IOException
    {
        if (_cfgPrettyPrinter != null) {
            _writePPFieldName(name, commaBefore);
            return;
        }
        // for fast+std case, need to output up to 2 chars, comma, dquote
        if ((_outputTail + 1) >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        if (commaBefore) {
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = ',';
        }
        // Alternate mode, in which quoting of field names disabled?
        if (_cfgUnqNames) {
            final char[] ch = name.asQuotedChars();
            writeRaw(ch, 0, ch.length);
            return;
        }
        // we know there's room for at least one more char
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        // The beef:
        
        int len = name.appendQuoted(_outputBuffer, _outputTail);
        if (len < 0) {
            _writeFieldNameTail(name);
            return;
        }
        _outputTail += len;
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }

    private final void _writeFieldNameTail(SerializableString name) throws IOException
    {
        final char[] quoted = name.asQuotedChars();
        writeRaw(quoted, 0, quoted.length);
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Output method implementations, structural
    /**********************************************************
     */

    @Override
    public void writeStartArray() throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite("start an array");
        _writeContext = _writeContext.createChildArrayContext();
        if (_cfgPrettyPrinter != null) {
            _cfgPrettyPrinter.writeStartArray(this);
        } else {
            if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = '[';
        }
    }

    @Override // since 2.12
    public void writeStartArray(Object currentValue) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite("start an array");
        _writeContext = _writeContext.createChildArrayContext(currentValue);
        if (_cfgPrettyPrinter != null) {
            _cfgPrettyPrinter.writeStartArray(this);
        } else {
            if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = '[';
        }
    }

    @Override // since 2.12
    public void writeStartArray(Object currentValue, int size) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite("start an array");
        _writeContext = _writeContext.createChildArrayContext(currentValue);
        if (_cfgPrettyPrinter != null) {
            _cfgPrettyPrinter.writeStartArray(this);
        } else {
            if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = '[';
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void writeEndArray() throws IOException
    {
        if (!_writeContext.inArray()) {
            _reportError("Current context not Array but "+_writeContext.typeDesc());
        }
        if (_cfgPrettyPrinter != null) {
            _cfgPrettyPrinter.writeEndArray(this, _writeContext.getEntryCount());
        } else {
            if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = ']';
        }
        _writeContext = _writeContext.clearAndGetParent();
    }

    @Override
    public void writeStartObject() throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite("start an object");
        _writeContext = _writeContext.createChildObjectContext();
        if (_cfgPrettyPrinter != null) {
            _cfgPrettyPrinter.writeStartObject(this);
        } else {
            if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = '{';
        }
    }

    @Override // since 2.8
    public void writeStartObject(Object forValue) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite("start an object");
        JsonWriteContext ctxt = _writeContext.createChildObjectContext(forValue);
        _writeContext = ctxt;
        if (_cfgPrettyPrinter != null) {
            _cfgPrettyPrinter.writeStartObject(this);
        } else {
            if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = '{';
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void writeEndObject() throws IOException
    {
        if (!_writeContext.inObject()) {
            _reportError("Current context not Object but "+_writeContext.typeDesc());
        }
        if (_cfgPrettyPrinter != null) {
            _cfgPrettyPrinter.writeEndObject(this, _writeContext.getEntryCount());
        } else {
            if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = '}';
        }
        _writeContext = _writeContext.clearAndGetParent();
    }

    /**
     * Specialized version of <code>_writeFieldName</code>, off-lined
     * to keep the "fast path" as simple (and hopefully fast) as possible.
     */
    protected final void _writePPFieldName(String name, boolean commaBefore) throws IOException
    {
        if (commaBefore) {
            _cfgPrettyPrinter.writeObjectEntrySeparator(this);
        } else {
            _cfgPrettyPrinter.beforeObjectEntries(this);
        }

        if (_cfgUnqNames) {// non-standard, omit quotes
            _writeString(name);
        } else { 
            if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
            _writeString(name);
            if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        }
    }

    protected final void _writePPFieldName(SerializableString name, boolean commaBefore) throws IOException
    {
        if (commaBefore) {
            _cfgPrettyPrinter.writeObjectEntrySeparator(this);
        } else {
            _cfgPrettyPrinter.beforeObjectEntries(this);
        }
        final char[] quoted = name.asQuotedChars();
        if (_cfgUnqNames) {// non-standard, omit quotes
            writeRaw(quoted, 0, quoted.length);
        } else {
            if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
            writeRaw(quoted, 0, quoted.length);
            if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        }
    }

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Output method implementations, textual
    /**********************************************************
     */

    @Override
    public void writeString(String text) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_STRING);
        if (text == null) {
            _writeNull();
            return;
        }
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        _writeString(text);
        // And finally, closing quotes
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }

    @Override
    public void writeString(Reader reader, final int len) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_STRING);
        if (reader == null) {
            _reportError("null reader");
            return; // just to block warnings by lgtm.com
        }
        int toRead = (len >= 0) ? len : Integer.MAX_VALUE;
        // Add leading quote
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;

        final char[] buf = _allocateCopyBuffer();
        while (toRead > 0) {
            int toReadNow = Math.min(toRead, buf.length);
            int numRead = reader.read(buf, 0, toReadNow);
            if (numRead <= 0) {
                break;
            }
            _writeString(buf, 0, numRead);
            toRead -= numRead;
        }
        // Add trailing quote
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;

        if (toRead > 0 && len >= 0) {
            _reportError("Didn't read enough from reader");
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void writeString(char[] text, int offset, int len) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_STRING);
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        _writeString(text, offset, len);
        // And finally, closing quotes
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }

    @Override
    public void writeString(SerializableString sstr) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_STRING);
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        int len = sstr.appendQuoted(_outputBuffer, _outputTail);
        if (len < 0) {
            _writeString2(sstr);
            return;
        }
        _outputTail += len;
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }

    private void _writeString2(SerializableString sstr) throws IOException
    {
        // Note: copied from writeRaw:
        char[] text = sstr.asQuotedChars();
        final int len = text.length;
        if (len < SHORT_WRITE) {
            int room = _outputEnd - _outputTail;
            if (len > room) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            System.arraycopy(text, 0, _outputBuffer, _outputTail, len);
            _outputTail += len;
        } else {
            _flushBuffer();
            _writer.write(text, 0, len);
        }
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }
    
    @Override
    public void writeRawUTF8String(byte[] text, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
        // could add support for buffering if we really want it...
        _reportUnsupportedOperation();
    }

    @Override
    public void writeUTF8String(byte[] text, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
        // could add support for buffering if we really want it...
        _reportUnsupportedOperation();
    }
    
    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Output method implementations, unprocessed ("raw")
    /**********************************************************
     */

    @Override
    public void writeRaw(String text) throws IOException
    {
        // Nothing to check, can just output as is
        int len = text.length();
        int room = _outputEnd - _outputTail;

        if (room == 0) {
            _flushBuffer();
            room = _outputEnd - _outputTail;
        }
        // But would it nicely fit in? If yes, it's easy
        if (room >= len) {
            text.getChars(0, len, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
            _outputTail += len;
        } else {
            writeRawLong(text);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void writeRaw(String text, int start, int len) throws IOException
    {
        // Nothing to check, can just output as is
        int room = _outputEnd - _outputTail;

        if (room < len) {
            _flushBuffer();
            room = _outputEnd - _outputTail;
        }
        // But would it nicely fit in? If yes, it's easy
        if (room >= len) {
            text.getChars(start, start+len, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
            _outputTail += len;
        } else {            	
            writeRawLong(text.substring(start, start+len));
        }
    }

    // @since 2.1
    @Override
    public void writeRaw(SerializableString text) throws IOException {
        int len = text.appendUnquoted(_outputBuffer, _outputTail);
        if (len < 0) {
            writeRaw(text.getValue());
            return;
        }
        _outputTail += len;
    }

    @Override
    public void writeRaw(char[] text, int offset, int len) throws IOException
    {
        // Only worth buffering if it's a short write?
        if (len < SHORT_WRITE) {
            int room = _outputEnd - _outputTail;
            if (len > room) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            System.arraycopy(text, offset, _outputBuffer, _outputTail, len);
            _outputTail += len;
            return;
        }
        // Otherwise, better just pass through:
        _flushBuffer();
        _writer.write(text, offset, len);
    }

    @Override
    public void writeRaw(char c) throws IOException
    {
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = c;
    }

    private void writeRawLong(String text) throws IOException
    {
        int room = _outputEnd - _outputTail;
        // If not, need to do it by looping
        text.getChars(0, room, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
        _outputTail += room;
        _flushBuffer();
        int offset = room;
        int len = text.length() - room;

        while (len > _outputEnd) {
            int amount = _outputEnd;
            text.getChars(offset, offset+amount, _outputBuffer, 0);
            _outputHead = 0;
            _outputTail = amount;
            _flushBuffer();
            offset += amount;
            len -= amount;
        }
        // And last piece (at most length of buffer)
        text.getChars(offset, offset+len, _outputBuffer, 0);
        _outputHead = 0;
        _outputTail = len;
    }

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Output method implementations, base64-encoded binary
    /**********************************************************
     */

    @Override
    public void writeBinary(Base64Variant b64variant, byte[] data, int offset, int len)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_BINARY);
        // Starting quotes
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        _writeBinary(b64variant, data, offset, offset+len);
        // and closing quotes
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }

    @Override
    public int writeBinary(Base64Variant b64variant,
            InputStream data, int dataLength)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_BINARY);
        // Starting quotes
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        byte[] encodingBuffer = _ioContext.allocBase64Buffer();
        int bytes;
        try {
            if (dataLength < 0) { // length unknown
                bytes = _writeBinary(b64variant, data, encodingBuffer);
            } else {
                int missing = _writeBinary(b64variant, data, encodingBuffer, dataLength);
                if (missing > 0) {
                    _reportError("Too few bytes available: missing "+missing+" bytes (out of "+dataLength+")");
                }
                bytes = dataLength;
            }
        } finally {
            _ioContext.releaseBase64Buffer(encodingBuffer);
        }
        // and closing quotes
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        return bytes;
    }
    
    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Output method implementations, primitive
    /**********************************************************
     */

    @Override
    public void writeNumber(short s) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_NUMBER);
        if (_cfgNumbersAsStrings) {
            _writeQuotedShort(s);
            return;
        }
        // up to 5 digits and possible minus sign
        if ((_outputTail + 6) >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputTail = NumberOutput.outputInt(s, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
    }

    private void _writeQuotedShort(short s) throws IOException {
        if ((_outputTail + 8) >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        _outputTail = NumberOutput.outputInt(s, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }    

    @Override
    public void writeNumber(int i) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_NUMBER);
        if (_cfgNumbersAsStrings) {
            _writeQuotedInt(i);
            return;
        }
        // up to 10 digits and possible minus sign
        if ((_outputTail + 11) >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputTail = NumberOutput.outputInt(i, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
    }

    private void _writeQuotedInt(int i) throws IOException {
        if ((_outputTail + 13) >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        _outputTail = NumberOutput.outputInt(i, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }    

    @Override
    public void writeNumber(long l) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_NUMBER);
        if (_cfgNumbersAsStrings) {
            _writeQuotedLong(l);
            return;
        }
        if ((_outputTail + 21) >= _outputEnd) {
            // up to 20 digits, minus sign
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputTail = NumberOutput.outputLong(l, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
    }

    private void _writeQuotedLong(long l) throws IOException {
        if ((_outputTail + 23) >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        _outputTail = NumberOutput.outputLong(l, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }

    // !!! 05-Aug-2008, tatus: Any ways to optimize these?

    @Override
    public void writeNumber(BigInteger value) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_NUMBER);
        if (value == null) {
            _writeNull();
        } else if (_cfgNumbersAsStrings) {
            _writeQuotedRaw(value.toString());
        } else {
            writeRaw(value.toString());
        }
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("deprecation")
    @Override
    public void writeNumber(double d) throws IOException
    {
        if (_cfgNumbersAsStrings ||
                (NumberOutput.notFinite(d) && isEnabled(Feature.QUOTE_NON_NUMERIC_NUMBERS))) {
            writeString(String.valueOf(d));
            return;
        }
        // What is the max length for doubles? 40 chars?
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_NUMBER);
        writeRaw(String.valueOf(d));
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("deprecation")
    @Override
    public void writeNumber(float f) throws IOException
    {
        if (_cfgNumbersAsStrings ||
                (NumberOutput.notFinite(f) && isEnabled(Feature.QUOTE_NON_NUMERIC_NUMBERS))) {
            writeString(String.valueOf(f));
            return;
        }
        // What is the max length for floats?
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_NUMBER);
        writeRaw(String.valueOf(f));
    }

    @Override
    public void writeNumber(BigDecimal value) throws IOException
    {
        // Don't really know max length for big decimal, no point checking
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_NUMBER);
        if (value == null) {
            _writeNull();
        } else  if (_cfgNumbersAsStrings) {
            _writeQuotedRaw(_asString(value));
        } else {
            writeRaw(_asString(value));
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void writeNumber(String encodedValue) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_NUMBER);
        if (encodedValue == null) {
            _writeNull();
        } else if (_cfgNumbersAsStrings) {
            _writeQuotedRaw(encodedValue);
        } else {
            writeRaw(encodedValue);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void writeNumber(char[] encodedValueBuffer, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_NUMBER);
        if (_cfgNumbersAsStrings) {
            _writeQuotedRaw(encodedValueBuffer, offset, length);
        } else {
            writeRaw(encodedValueBuffer, offset, length);
        }
    }

    private void _writeQuotedRaw(String value) throws IOException
    {
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        writeRaw(value);
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }

    private void _writeQuotedRaw(char[] text, int offset, int length) throws IOException
    {
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
        writeRaw(text, offset, length);
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = _quoteChar;
    }

    @Override
    public void writeBoolean(boolean state) throws IOException
    {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_BOOLEAN);
        if ((_outputTail + 5) >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        int ptr = _outputTail;
        char[] buf = _outputBuffer;
        if (state) {
            buf[ptr] = 't';
            buf[++ptr] = 'r';
            buf[++ptr] = 'u';
            buf[++ptr] = 'e';
        } else {
            buf[ptr] = 'f';
            buf[++ptr] = 'a';
            buf[++ptr] = 'l';
            buf[++ptr] = 's';
            buf[++ptr] = 'e';
        }
        _outputTail = ptr+1;
    }

    @Override
    public void writeNull() throws IOException {
        _verifyValueWrite(WRITE_NULL);
        _writeNull();
    }

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Implementations for other methods
    /**********************************************************
     */

    @Override
    protected final void _verifyValueWrite(String typeMsg) throws IOException
    {
        final int status = _writeContext.writeValue();
        if (_cfgPrettyPrinter != null) {
            // Otherwise, pretty printer knows what to do...
            _verifyPrettyValueWrite(typeMsg, status);
            return;
        }
        char c;
        switch (status) {
        case JsonWriteContext.STATUS_OK_AS_IS:
        default:
            return;
        case JsonWriteContext.STATUS_OK_AFTER_COMMA:
            c = ',';
            break;
        case JsonWriteContext.STATUS_OK_AFTER_COLON:
            c = ':';
            break;
        case JsonWriteContext.STATUS_OK_AFTER_SPACE: // root-value separator
            if (_rootValueSeparator != null) {
                writeRaw(_rootValueSeparator.getValue());
            }
            return;
        case JsonWriteContext.STATUS_EXPECT_NAME:
            _reportCantWriteValueExpectName(typeMsg);
            return;
        }
        if (_outputTail >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = c;
    }

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Low-level output handling
    /**********************************************************
     */

    @Override
    public void flush() throws IOException
    {
        _flushBuffer();
        if (_writer != null) {
            if (isEnabled(Feature.FLUSH_PASSED_TO_STREAM)) {
                _writer.flush();
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void close() throws IOException
    {
        super.close();

        /* 05-Dec-2008, tatu: To add [JACKSON-27], need to close open
         *   scopes.
         */
        // First: let's see that we still have buffers...
        if (_outputBuffer != null
            && isEnabled(Feature.AUTO_CLOSE_JSON_CONTENT)) {
            while (true) {
                JsonStreamContext ctxt = getOutputContext();
                if (ctxt.inArray()) {
                    writeEndArray();
                } else if (ctxt.inObject()) {
                    writeEndObject();
                } else {
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
        _flushBuffer();
        _outputHead = 0;
        _outputTail = 0;

        /* 25-Nov-2008, tatus: As per [JACKSON-16] we are not to call close()
         *   on the underlying Reader, unless we "own" it, or auto-closing
         *   feature is enabled.
         *   One downside: when using UTF8Writer, underlying buffer(s)
         *   may not be properly recycled if we don't close the writer.
         */
        if (_writer != null) {
            if (_ioContext.isResourceManaged() || isEnabled(Feature.AUTO_CLOSE_TARGET)) {
                _writer.close();
            } else  if (isEnabled(Feature.FLUSH_PASSED_TO_STREAM)) {
                // If we can't close it, we should at least flush
                _writer.flush();
            }
        }
        // Internal buffer(s) generator has can now be released as well
        _releaseBuffers();
    }

    @Override
    protected void _releaseBuffers()
    {
        char[] buf = _outputBuffer;
        if (buf != null) {
            _outputBuffer = null;
            _ioContext.releaseConcatBuffer(buf);
        }
        buf = _copyBuffer;
        if (buf != null) {
            _copyBuffer = null;
            _ioContext.releaseNameCopyBuffer(buf);
        }
    }

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Internal methods, low-level writing; text, default
    /**********************************************************
     */

    private void _writeString(String text) throws IOException
    {
        /* One check first: if String won't fit in the buffer, let's
         * segment writes. No point in extending buffer to huge sizes
         * (like if someone wants to include multi-megabyte base64
         * encoded stuff or such)
         */
        final int len = text.length();
        if (len > _outputEnd) { // Let's reserve space for entity at begin/end
            _writeLongString(text);
            return;
        }

        // Ok: we know String will fit in buffer ok
        // But do we need to flush first?
        if ((_outputTail + len) > _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        text.getChars(0, len, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);

        if (_characterEscapes != null) {
            _writeStringCustom(len);
        } else if (_maximumNonEscapedChar != 0) {
            _writeStringASCII(len, _maximumNonEscapedChar);
        } else {
            _writeString2(len);
        }
    }

    private void _writeString2(final int len) throws IOException
    {
        // And then we'll need to verify need for escaping etc:
        final int end = _outputTail + len;
        final int[] escCodes = _outputEscapes;
        final int escLen = escCodes.length;

        output_loop:
        while (_outputTail < end) {
            // Fast loop for chars not needing escaping
            escape_loop:
            while (true) {
                char c = _outputBuffer[_outputTail];
                if (c < escLen && escCodes[c] != 0) {
                    break escape_loop;
                }
                if (++_outputTail >= end) {
                    break output_loop;
                }
            }

            // Ok, bumped into something that needs escaping.
            /* First things first: need to flush the buffer.
             * Inlined, as we don't want to lose tail pointer
             */
            int flushLen = (_outputTail - _outputHead);
            if (flushLen > 0) {
                _writer.write(_outputBuffer, _outputHead, flushLen);
            }
            /* In any case, tail will be the new start, so hopefully
             * we have room now.
             */
            char c = _outputBuffer[_outputTail++];
            _prependOrWriteCharacterEscape(c, escCodes[c]);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Method called to write "long strings", strings whose length exceeds
     * output buffer length.
     */
    private void _writeLongString(String text) throws IOException
    {
        // First things first: let's flush the buffer to get some more room
        _flushBuffer();

        // Then we can write 
        final int textLen = text.length();
        int offset = 0;
        do {
            int max = _outputEnd;
            int segmentLen = ((offset + max) > textLen)
                ? (textLen - offset) : max;
            text.getChars(offset, offset+segmentLen, _outputBuffer, 0);
            if (_characterEscapes != null) {
                _writeSegmentCustom(segmentLen);
            } else if (_maximumNonEscapedChar != 0) {
                _writeSegmentASCII(segmentLen, _maximumNonEscapedChar);
            } else {
                _writeSegment(segmentLen);
            }
            offset += segmentLen;
        } while (offset < textLen);
    }

    /**
     * Method called to output textual context which has been copied
     * to the output buffer prior to call. If any escaping is needed,
     * it will also be handled by the method.
     *<p>
     * Note: when called, textual content to write is within output
     * buffer, right after buffered content (if any). That's why only
     * length of that text is passed, as buffer and offset are implied.
     */
    private void _writeSegment(int end) throws IOException
    {
        final int[] escCodes = _outputEscapes;
        final int escLen = escCodes.length;
    
        int ptr = 0;
        int start = ptr;

        output_loop:
        while (ptr < end) {
            // Fast loop for chars not needing escaping
            char c;
            while (true) {
                c = _outputBuffer[ptr];
                if (c < escLen && escCodes[c] != 0) {
                    break;
                }
                if (++ptr >= end) {
                    break;
                }
            }

            // Ok, bumped into something that needs escaping.
            /* First things first: need to flush the buffer.
             * Inlined, as we don't want to lose tail pointer
             */
            int flushLen = (ptr - start);
            if (flushLen > 0) {
                _writer.write(_outputBuffer, start, flushLen);
                if (ptr >= end) {
                    break output_loop;
                }
            }
            ++ptr;
            // So; either try to prepend (most likely), or write directly:
            start = _prependOrWriteCharacterEscape(_outputBuffer, ptr, end, c, escCodes[c]);
        }
    }
    
    /**
     * This method called when the string content is already in
     * a char buffer, and need not be copied for processing.
     */
    private void _writeString(char[] text, int offset, int len) throws IOException
    {
        if (_characterEscapes != null) {
            _writeStringCustom(text, offset, len);
            return;
        }
        if (_maximumNonEscapedChar != 0) {
            _writeStringASCII(text, offset, len, _maximumNonEscapedChar);
            return;
        }

        // Let's just find longest spans of non-escapable content, and for
        // each see if it makes sense to copy them, or write through

        len += offset; // -> len marks the end from now on
        final int[] escCodes = _outputEscapes;
        final int escLen = escCodes.length;
        while (offset < len) {
            int start = offset;

            while (true) {
                char c = text[offset];
                if (c < escLen && escCodes[c] != 0) {
                    break;
                }
                if (++offset >= len) {
                    break;
                }
            }

            // Short span? Better just copy it to buffer first:
            int newAmount = offset - start;
            if (newAmount < SHORT_WRITE) {
                // Note: let's reserve room for escaped char (up to 6 chars)
                if ((_outputTail + newAmount) > _outputEnd) {
                    _flushBuffer();
                }
                if (newAmount > 0) {
                    System.arraycopy(text, start, _outputBuffer, _outputTail, newAmount);
                    _outputTail += newAmount;
                }
            } else { // Nope: better just write through
                _flushBuffer();
                _writer.write(text, start, newAmount);
            }
            // Was this the end?
            if (offset >= len) { // yup
                break;
            }
            // Nope, need to escape the char.
            char c = text[offset++];
            _appendCharacterEscape(c, escCodes[c]);          
        }
    }

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Internal methods, low-level writing, text segment
    /* with additional escaping (ASCII or such)
    /**********************************************************
     */

    /* Same as "_writeString2()", except needs additional escaping
     * for subset of characters
     */
    private void _writeStringASCII(final int len, final int maxNonEscaped)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        // And then we'll need to verify need for escaping etc:
        int end = _outputTail + len;
        final int[] escCodes = _outputEscapes;
        final int escLimit = Math.min(escCodes.length, maxNonEscaped+1);
        int escCode = 0;
        
        output_loop:
        while (_outputTail < end) {
            char c;
            // Fast loop for chars not needing escaping
            escape_loop:
            while (true) {
                c = _outputBuffer[_outputTail];
                if (c < escLimit) {
                    escCode = escCodes[c];
                    if (escCode != 0) {
                        break escape_loop;
                    }
                } else if (c > maxNonEscaped) {
                    escCode = CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_STANDARD;
                    break escape_loop;
                }
                if (++_outputTail >= end) {
                    break output_loop;
                }
            }
            int flushLen = (_outputTail - _outputHead);
            if (flushLen > 0) {
                _writer.write(_outputBuffer, _outputHead, flushLen);
            }
            ++_outputTail;
            _prependOrWriteCharacterEscape(c, escCode);
        }
    }

    private void _writeSegmentASCII(int end, final int maxNonEscaped)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        final int[] escCodes = _outputEscapes;
        final int escLimit = Math.min(escCodes.length, maxNonEscaped+1);
    
        int ptr = 0;
        int escCode = 0;
        int start = ptr;
    
        output_loop:
        while (ptr < end) {
            // Fast loop for chars not needing escaping
            char c;
            while (true) {
                c = _outputBuffer[ptr];
                if (c < escLimit) {
                    escCode = escCodes[c];
                    if (escCode != 0) {
                        break;
                    }
                } else if (c > maxNonEscaped) {
                    escCode = CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_STANDARD;
                    break;
                }
                if (++ptr >= end) {
                    break;
                }
            }
            int flushLen = (ptr - start);
            if (flushLen > 0) {
                _writer.write(_outputBuffer, start, flushLen);
                if (ptr >= end) {
                    break output_loop;
                }
            }
            ++ptr;
            start = _prependOrWriteCharacterEscape(_outputBuffer, ptr, end, c, escCode);
        }
    }

    private void _writeStringASCII(char[] text, int offset, int len,
            final int maxNonEscaped)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        len += offset; // -> len marks the end from now on
        final int[] escCodes = _outputEscapes;
        final int escLimit = Math.min(escCodes.length, maxNonEscaped+1);

        int escCode = 0;
        
        while (offset < len) {
            int start = offset;
            char c;
            
            while (true) {
                c = text[offset];
                if (c < escLimit) {
                    escCode = escCodes[c];
                    if (escCode != 0) {
                        break;
                    }
                } else if (c > maxNonEscaped) {
                    escCode = CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_STANDARD;
                    break;
                }
                if (++offset >= len) {
                    break;
                }
            }

            // Short span? Better just copy it to buffer first:
            int newAmount = offset - start;
            if (newAmount < SHORT_WRITE) {
                // Note: let's reserve room for escaped char (up to 6 chars)
                if ((_outputTail + newAmount) > _outputEnd) {
                    _flushBuffer();
                }
                if (newAmount > 0) {
                    System.arraycopy(text, start, _outputBuffer, _outputTail, newAmount);
                    _outputTail += newAmount;
                }
            } else { // Nope: better just write through
                _flushBuffer();
                _writer.write(text, start, newAmount);
            }
            // Was this the end?
            if (offset >= len) { // yup
                break;
            }
            // Nope, need to escape the char.
            ++offset;
            _appendCharacterEscape(c, escCode);
        }
    }

    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Internal methods, low-level writing, text segment
    /* with custom escaping (possibly coupling with ASCII limits)
    /**********************************************************
     */

    /* Same as "_writeString2()", except needs additional escaping
     * for subset of characters
     */
    private void _writeStringCustom(final int len)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        // And then we'll need to verify need for escaping etc:
        int end = _outputTail + len;
        final int[] escCodes = _outputEscapes;
        final int maxNonEscaped = (_maximumNonEscapedChar < 1) ? 0xFFFF : _maximumNonEscapedChar;
        final int escLimit = Math.min(escCodes.length, maxNonEscaped+1);
        int escCode = 0;
        final CharacterEscapes customEscapes = _characterEscapes;

        output_loop:
        while (_outputTail < end) {
            char c;
            // Fast loop for chars not needing escaping
            escape_loop:
            while (true) {
                c = _outputBuffer[_outputTail];
                if (c < escLimit) {
                    escCode = escCodes[c];
                    if (escCode != 0) {
                        break escape_loop;
                    }
                } else if (c > maxNonEscaped) {
                    escCode = CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_STANDARD;
                    break escape_loop;
                } else {
                    if ((_currentEscape = customEscapes.getEscapeSequence(c)) != null) {
                        escCode = CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_CUSTOM;
                        break escape_loop;
                    }
                }
                if (++_outputTail >= end) {
                    break output_loop;
                }
            }
            int flushLen = (_outputTail - _outputHead);
            if (flushLen > 0) {
                _writer.write(_outputBuffer, _outputHead, flushLen);
            }
            ++_outputTail;
            _prependOrWriteCharacterEscape(c, escCode);
        }
    }

    private void _writeSegmentCustom(int end)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        final int[] escCodes = _outputEscapes;
        final int maxNonEscaped = (_maximumNonEscapedChar < 1) ? 0xFFFF : _maximumNonEscapedChar;
        final int escLimit = Math.min(escCodes.length, maxNonEscaped+1);
        final CharacterEscapes customEscapes = _characterEscapes;
    
        int ptr = 0;
        int escCode = 0;
        int start = ptr;
    
        output_loop:
        while (ptr < end) {
            // Fast loop for chars not needing escaping
            char c;
            while (true) {
                c = _outputBuffer[ptr];
                if (c < escLimit) {
                    escCode = escCodes[c];
                    if (escCode != 0) {
                        break;
                    }
                } else if (c > maxNonEscaped) {
                    escCode = CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_STANDARD;
                    break;
                } else {
                    if ((_currentEscape = customEscapes.getEscapeSequence(c)) != null) {
                        escCode = CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_CUSTOM;
                        break;
                    }
                }
                if (++ptr >= end) {
                    break;
                }
            }
            int flushLen = (ptr - start);
            if (flushLen > 0) {
                _writer.write(_outputBuffer, start, flushLen);
                if (ptr >= end) {
                    break output_loop;
                }
            }
            ++ptr;
            start = _prependOrWriteCharacterEscape(_outputBuffer, ptr, end, c, escCode);
        }
    }

    private void _writeStringCustom(char[] text, int offset, int len)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        len += offset; // -> len marks the end from now on
        final int[] escCodes = _outputEscapes;
        final int maxNonEscaped = (_maximumNonEscapedChar < 1) ? 0xFFFF : _maximumNonEscapedChar;
        final int escLimit = Math.min(escCodes.length, maxNonEscaped+1);
        final CharacterEscapes customEscapes = _characterEscapes;

        int escCode = 0;
        
        while (offset < len) {
            int start = offset;
            char c;
            
            while (true) {
                c = text[offset];
                if (c < escLimit) {
                    escCode = escCodes[c];
                    if (escCode != 0) {
                        break;
                    }
                } else if (c > maxNonEscaped) {
                    escCode = CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_STANDARD;
                    break;
                } else {
                    if ((_currentEscape = customEscapes.getEscapeSequence(c)) != null) {
                        escCode = CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_CUSTOM;
                        break;
                    }
                }
                if (++offset >= len) {
                    break;
                }
            }
    
            // Short span? Better just copy it to buffer first:
            int newAmount = offset - start;
            if (newAmount < SHORT_WRITE) {
                // Note: let's reserve room for escaped char (up to 6 chars)
                if ((_outputTail + newAmount) > _outputEnd) {
                    _flushBuffer();
                }
                if (newAmount > 0) {
                    System.arraycopy(text, start, _outputBuffer, _outputTail, newAmount);
                    _outputTail += newAmount;
                }
            } else { // Nope: better just write through
                _flushBuffer();
                _writer.write(text, start, newAmount);
            }
            // Was this the end?
            if (offset >= len) { // yup
                break;
            }
            // Nope, need to escape the char.
            ++offset;
            _appendCharacterEscape(c, escCode);
        }
    }
    
    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Internal methods, low-level writing; binary
    /**********************************************************
     */
    
    protected final void _writeBinary(Base64Variant b64variant, byte[] input, int inputPtr, final int inputEnd)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        // Encoding is by chunks of 3 input, 4 output chars, so:
        int safeInputEnd = inputEnd - 3;
        // Let's also reserve room for possible (and quoted) lf char each round
        int safeOutputEnd = _outputEnd - 6;
        int chunksBeforeLF = b64variant.getMaxLineLength() >> 2;

        // Ok, first we loop through all full triplets of data:
        while (inputPtr <= safeInputEnd) {
            if (_outputTail > safeOutputEnd) { // need to flush
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            // First, mash 3 bytes into lsb of 32-bit int
            int b24 = ((int) input[inputPtr++]) << 8;
            b24 |= ((int) input[inputPtr++]) & 0xFF;
            b24 = (b24 << 8) | (((int) input[inputPtr++]) & 0xFF);
            _outputTail = b64variant.encodeBase64Chunk(b24, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
            if (--chunksBeforeLF <= 0) {
                // note: must quote in JSON value
                _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = '\\';
                _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = 'n';
                chunksBeforeLF = b64variant.getMaxLineLength() >> 2;
            }
        }

        // And then we may have 1 or 2 leftover bytes to encode
        int inputLeft = inputEnd - inputPtr; // 0, 1 or 2
        if (inputLeft > 0) { // yes, but do we have room for output?
            if (_outputTail > safeOutputEnd) { // don't really need 6 bytes but...
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            int b24 = ((int) input[inputPtr++]) << 16;
            if (inputLeft == 2) {
                b24 |= (((int) input[inputPtr++]) & 0xFF) << 8;
            }
            _outputTail = b64variant.encodeBase64Partial(b24, inputLeft, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
        }
    }

    // write-method called when length is definitely known
    protected final int _writeBinary(Base64Variant b64variant,
            InputStream data, byte[] readBuffer, int bytesLeft)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        int inputPtr = 0;
        int inputEnd = 0;
        int lastFullOffset = -3;       
        
        // Let's also reserve room for possible (and quoted) lf char each round
        int safeOutputEnd = _outputEnd - 6;
        int chunksBeforeLF = b64variant.getMaxLineLength() >> 2;

        while (bytesLeft > 2) { // main loop for full triplets
            if (inputPtr > lastFullOffset) {
                inputEnd = _readMore(data, readBuffer, inputPtr, inputEnd, bytesLeft);
                inputPtr = 0;
                if (inputEnd < 3) { // required to try to read to have at least 3 bytes
                    break;
                }
                lastFullOffset = inputEnd-3;
            }
            if (_outputTail > safeOutputEnd) { // need to flush
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            int b24 = ((int) readBuffer[inputPtr++]) << 8;
            b24 |= ((int) readBuffer[inputPtr++]) & 0xFF;
            b24 = (b24 << 8) | (((int) readBuffer[inputPtr++]) & 0xFF);
            bytesLeft -= 3;
            _outputTail = b64variant.encodeBase64Chunk(b24, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
            if (--chunksBeforeLF <= 0) {
                _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = '\\';
                _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = 'n';
                chunksBeforeLF = b64variant.getMaxLineLength() >> 2;
            }
        }
        
        // And then we may have 1 or 2 leftover bytes to encode
        if (bytesLeft > 0) {
            inputEnd = _readMore(data, readBuffer, inputPtr, inputEnd, bytesLeft);
            inputPtr = 0;
            if (inputEnd > 0) { // yes, but do we have room for output?
                if (_outputTail > safeOutputEnd) { // don't really need 6 bytes but...
                    _flushBuffer();
                }
                int b24 = ((int) readBuffer[inputPtr++]) << 16;
                int amount;
                if (inputPtr < inputEnd) {
                    b24 |= (((int) readBuffer[inputPtr]) & 0xFF) << 8;
                    amount = 2;
                } else {
                    amount = 1;
                }
                _outputTail = b64variant.encodeBase64Partial(b24, amount, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
                bytesLeft -= amount;
            }
        }
        return bytesLeft;
    }
    
    // write method when length is unknown
    protected final int _writeBinary(Base64Variant b64variant,
            InputStream data, byte[] readBuffer)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        int inputPtr = 0;
        int inputEnd = 0;
        int lastFullOffset = -3;
        int bytesDone = 0;
        
        // Let's also reserve room for possible (and quoted) LF char each round
        int safeOutputEnd = _outputEnd - 6;
        int chunksBeforeLF = b64variant.getMaxLineLength() >> 2;

        // Ok, first we loop through all full triplets of data:
        while (true) {
            if (inputPtr > lastFullOffset) { // need to load more
                inputEnd = _readMore(data, readBuffer, inputPtr, inputEnd, readBuffer.length);
                inputPtr = 0;
                if (inputEnd < 3) { // required to try to read to have at least 3 bytes
                    break;
                }
                lastFullOffset = inputEnd-3;
            }
            if (_outputTail > safeOutputEnd) { // need to flush
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            // First, mash 3 bytes into lsb of 32-bit int
            int b24 = ((int) readBuffer[inputPtr++]) << 8;
            b24 |= ((int) readBuffer[inputPtr++]) & 0xFF;
            b24 = (b24 << 8) | (((int) readBuffer[inputPtr++]) & 0xFF);
            bytesDone += 3;
            _outputTail = b64variant.encodeBase64Chunk(b24, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
            if (--chunksBeforeLF <= 0) {
                _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = '\\';
                _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = 'n';
                chunksBeforeLF = b64variant.getMaxLineLength() >> 2;
            }
        }

        // And then we may have 1 or 2 leftover bytes to encode
        if (inputPtr < inputEnd) { // yes, but do we have room for output?
            if (_outputTail > safeOutputEnd) { // don't really need 6 bytes but...
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            int b24 = ((int) readBuffer[inputPtr++]) << 16;
            int amount = 1;
            if (inputPtr < inputEnd) {
                b24 |= (((int) readBuffer[inputPtr]) & 0xFF) << 8;
                amount = 2;
            }
            bytesDone += amount;
            _outputTail = b64variant.encodeBase64Partial(b24, amount, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
        }
        return bytesDone;
    }
    
    private int _readMore(InputStream in,
            byte[] readBuffer, int inputPtr, int inputEnd,
            int maxRead) throws IOException
    {
        // anything to shift to front?
        int i = 0;
        while (inputPtr < inputEnd) {
            readBuffer[i++]  = readBuffer[inputPtr++];
        }
        inputPtr = 0;
        inputEnd = i;
        maxRead = Math.min(maxRead, readBuffer.length);
        
        do {
            int length = maxRead - inputEnd;
            if (length == 0) {
                break;
            }
            int count = in.read(readBuffer, inputEnd, length);            
            if (count < 0) {
                return inputEnd;
            }
            inputEnd += count;
        } while (inputEnd < 3);
        return inputEnd;
    }
    
    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Internal methods, low-level writing, other
    /**********************************************************
     */
    
    private final void _writeNull() throws IOException
    {
        if ((_outputTail + 4) >= _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
        }
        int ptr = _outputTail;
        char[] buf = _outputBuffer;
        buf[ptr] = 'n';
        buf[++ptr] = 'u';
        buf[++ptr] = 'l';
        buf[++ptr] = 'l';
        _outputTail = ptr+1;
    }
        
    /*
    /**********************************************************
    /* Internal methods, low-level writing, escapes
    /**********************************************************
     */

    /**
     * Method called to try to either prepend character escape at front of
     * given buffer; or if not possible, to write it out directly.
     * Uses head and tail pointers (and updates as necessary)
     */
    private void _prependOrWriteCharacterEscape(char ch, int escCode)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        if (escCode >= 0) { // \\N (2 char)
            if (_outputTail >= 2) { // fits, just prepend
                int ptr = _outputTail - 2;
                _outputHead = ptr;
                _outputBuffer[ptr++] = '\\';
                _outputBuffer[ptr] = (char) escCode;
                return;
            }
            // won't fit, write
            char[] buf = _entityBuffer;
            if (buf == null) {
                buf = _allocateEntityBuffer();
            }
            _outputHead = _outputTail;
            buf[1] = (char) escCode;
            _writer.write(buf, 0, 2);
            return;
        }
        if (escCode != CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_CUSTOM) { // std, \\uXXXX
            if (_outputTail >= 6) { // fits, prepend to buffer
                char[] buf = _outputBuffer;
                int ptr = _outputTail - 6;
                _outputHead = ptr;
                buf[ptr] = '\\';
                buf[++ptr] = 'u';
                // We know it's a control char, so only the last 2 chars are non-0
                if (ch > 0xFF) { // beyond 8 bytes
                    int hi = (ch >> 8) & 0xFF;
                    buf[++ptr] = HEX_CHARS[hi >> 4];
                    buf[++ptr] = HEX_CHARS[hi & 0xF];
                    ch &= 0xFF;
                } else {
                    buf[++ptr] = '0';
                    buf[++ptr] = '0';
                }
                buf[++ptr] = HEX_CHARS[ch >> 4];
                buf[++ptr] = HEX_CHARS[ch & 0xF];
                return;
            }
            // won't fit, flush and write
            char[] buf = _entityBuffer;
            if (buf == null) {
                buf = _allocateEntityBuffer();
            }
            _outputHead = _outputTail;
            if (ch > 0xFF) { // beyond 8 bytes
                int hi = (ch >> 8) & 0xFF;
                int lo = ch & 0xFF;
                buf[10] = HEX_CHARS[hi >> 4];
                buf[11] = HEX_CHARS[hi & 0xF];
                buf[12] = HEX_CHARS[lo >> 4];
                buf[13] = HEX_CHARS[lo & 0xF];
                _writer.write(buf, 8, 6);
            } else { // We know it's a control char, so only the last 2 chars are non-0
                buf[6] = HEX_CHARS[ch >> 4];
                buf[7] = HEX_CHARS[ch & 0xF];
                _writer.write(buf, 2, 6);
            }
            return;
        }
        String escape;

        if (_currentEscape == null) {
            escape = _characterEscapes.getEscapeSequence(ch).getValue();
        } else {
            escape = _currentEscape.getValue();
            _currentEscape = null;
        }
        int len = escape.length();
        if (_outputTail >= len) { // fits in, prepend
            int ptr = _outputTail - len;
            _outputHead = ptr;
            escape.getChars(0, len, _outputBuffer, ptr);
            return;
        }
        // won't fit, write separately
        _outputHead = _outputTail;
        _writer.write(escape);
    }

    /**
     * Method called to try to either prepend character escape at front of
     * given buffer; or if not possible, to write it out directly.
     * 
     * @return Pointer to start of prepended entity (if prepended); or 'ptr'
     *   if not.
     */
    private int _prependOrWriteCharacterEscape(char[] buffer, int ptr, int end,
            char ch, int escCode)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        if (escCode >= 0) { // \\N (2 char)
            if (ptr > 1 && ptr < end) { // fits, just prepend
                ptr -= 2;
                buffer[ptr] = '\\';
                buffer[ptr+1] = (char) escCode;
            } else { // won't fit, write
                char[] ent = _entityBuffer;
                if (ent == null) {
                    ent = _allocateEntityBuffer();
                }
                ent[1] = (char) escCode;
                _writer.write(ent, 0, 2);
            }
            return ptr;
        }
        if (escCode != CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_CUSTOM) { // std, \\uXXXX
            if (ptr > 5 && ptr < end) { // fits, prepend to buffer
                ptr -= 6;
                buffer[ptr++] = '\\';
                buffer[ptr++] = 'u';
                // We know it's a control char, so only the last 2 chars are non-0
                if (ch > 0xFF) { // beyond 8 bytes
                    int hi = (ch >> 8) & 0xFF;
                    buffer[ptr++] = HEX_CHARS[hi >> 4];
                    buffer[ptr++] = HEX_CHARS[hi & 0xF];
                    ch &= 0xFF;
                } else {
                    buffer[ptr++] = '0';
                    buffer[ptr++] = '0';
                }
                buffer[ptr++] = HEX_CHARS[ch >> 4];
                buffer[ptr] = HEX_CHARS[ch & 0xF];
                ptr -= 5;
            } else {
                // won't fit, flush and write
                char[] ent = _entityBuffer;
                if (ent == null) {
                    ent = _allocateEntityBuffer();
                }
                _outputHead = _outputTail;
                if (ch > 0xFF) { // beyond 8 bytes
                    int hi = (ch >> 8) & 0xFF;
                    int lo = ch & 0xFF;
                    ent[10] = HEX_CHARS[hi >> 4];
                    ent[11] = HEX_CHARS[hi & 0xF];
                    ent[12] = HEX_CHARS[lo >> 4];
                    ent[13] = HEX_CHARS[lo & 0xF];
                    _writer.write(ent, 8, 6);
                } else { // We know it's a control char, so only the last 2 chars are non-0
                    ent[6] = HEX_CHARS[ch >> 4];
                    ent[7] = HEX_CHARS[ch & 0xF];
                    _writer.write(ent, 2, 6);
                }
            }
            return ptr;
        }
        String escape;
        if (_currentEscape == null) {
            escape = _characterEscapes.getEscapeSequence(ch).getValue();
        } else {
            escape = _currentEscape.getValue();
            _currentEscape = null;
        }
        int len = escape.length();
        if (ptr >= len && ptr < end) { // fits in, prepend
            ptr -= len;
            escape.getChars(0, len, buffer, ptr);
        } else { // won't fit, write separately
            _writer.write(escape);
        }
        return ptr;
    }

    /**
     * Method called to append escape sequence for given character, at the
     * end of standard output buffer; or if not possible, write out directly.
     */
    private void _appendCharacterEscape(char ch, int escCode)
        throws IOException, JsonGenerationException
    {
        if (escCode >= 0) { // \\N (2 char)
            if ((_outputTail + 2) > _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = '\\';
            _outputBuffer[_outputTail++] = (char) escCode;
            return;
        }
        if (escCode != CharacterEscapes.ESCAPE_CUSTOM) { // std, \\uXXXX
            if ((_outputTail + 5) >= _outputEnd) {
                _flushBuffer();
            }
            int ptr = _outputTail;
            char[] buf = _outputBuffer;
            buf[ptr++] = '\\';
            buf[ptr++] = 'u';
            // We know it's a control char, so only the last 2 chars are non-0
            if (ch > 0xFF) { // beyond 8 bytes
                int hi = (ch >> 8) & 0xFF;
                buf[ptr++] = HEX_CHARS[hi >> 4];
                buf[ptr++] = HEX_CHARS[hi & 0xF];
                ch &= 0xFF;
            } else {
                buf[ptr++] = '0';
                buf[ptr++] = '0';
            }
            buf[ptr++] = HEX_CHARS[ch >> 4];
            buf[ptr++] = HEX_CHARS[ch & 0xF];
            _outputTail = ptr;
            return;
        }
        String escape;
        if (_currentEscape == null) {
            escape = _characterEscapes.getEscapeSequence(ch).getValue();
        } else {
            escape = _currentEscape.getValue();
            _currentEscape = null;
        }
        int len = escape.length();
        if ((_outputTail + len) > _outputEnd) {
            _flushBuffer();
            if (len > _outputEnd) { // very very long escape; unlikely but theoretically possible
                _writer.write(escape);
                return;
            }
        }
        escape.getChars(0, len, _outputBuffer, _outputTail);
        _outputTail += len;
    }
    
    private char[] _allocateEntityBuffer()
    {
        char[] buf = new char[14];
        // first 2 chars, non-numeric escapes (like \n)
        buf[0] = '\\';
        // next 6; 8-bit escapes (control chars mostly)
        buf[2] = '\\';
        buf[3] = 'u';
        buf[4] = '0';
        buf[5] = '0';
        // last 6, beyond 8 bits
        buf[8] = '\\';
        buf[9] = 'u';
        _entityBuffer = buf;
        return buf;
    }

    /**
     * @since 2.9
     */
    private char[] _allocateCopyBuffer() {
        if (_copyBuffer == null) {
            _copyBuffer = _ioContext.allocNameCopyBuffer(2000);
        }
        return _copyBuffer;
    }

    protected void _flushBuffer() throws IOException
    {
        int len = _outputTail - _outputHead;
        if (len > 0) {
            int offset = _outputHead;
            _outputTail = _outputHead = 0;
            _writer.write(_outputBuffer, offset, len);
        }
    }
}

com/fasterxml/jackson/core/json/WriterBasedJsonGenerator.java

 

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2016-02-03, 29555👍, 1💬