JDK 11 java.base.jmod - Base Module

JDK 11 java.base.jmod is the JMOD file for JDK 11 Base module.

JDK 11 Base module compiled class files are stored in \fyicenter\jdk-11.0.1\jmods\java.base.jmod.

JDK 11 Base module compiled class files are also linked and stored in the \fyicenter\jdk-11.0.1\lib\modules JImage file.

JDK 11 Base module source code files are stored in \fyicenter\jdk-11.0.1\lib\src.zip\java.base.

You can click and view the content of each source code file in the list below.

✍: FYIcenter

com/sun/java/util/jar/pack/BandStructure.java

/*
 * Copyright (c) 2001, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * ORACLE PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 */

package com.sun.java.util.jar.pack;

import com.sun.java.util.jar.pack.ConstantPool.Entry;
import com.sun.java.util.jar.pack.ConstantPool.Index;
import com.sun.java.util.jar.pack.Package.Class.Field;
import java.io.BufferedOutputStream;
import java.io.ByteArrayInputStream;
import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.io.EOFException;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.FilterInputStream;
import java.io.FilterOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.io.PrintStream;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.jar.Pack200;
import static com.sun.java.util.jar.pack.Constants.*;
import java.util.LinkedList;

/**
 * Define the structure and ordering of "bands" in a packed file.
 * @author John Rose
 */
@SuppressWarnings({"removal"})
abstract
class BandStructure {
    static final int MAX_EFFORT = 9;
    static final int MIN_EFFORT = 1;
    static final int DEFAULT_EFFORT = 5;

    // Inherit options from Pack200:
    PropMap p200 = Utils.currentPropMap();

    int verbose = p200.getInteger(Utils.DEBUG_VERBOSE);
    int effort = p200.getInteger(Pack200.Packer.EFFORT);
    { if (effort == 0)  effort = DEFAULT_EFFORT; }
    boolean optDumpBands = p200.getBoolean(Utils.COM_PREFIX+"dump.bands");
    boolean optDebugBands = p200.getBoolean(Utils.COM_PREFIX+"debug.bands");

    // Various heuristic options.
    boolean optVaryCodings = !p200.getBoolean(Utils.COM_PREFIX+"no.vary.codings");
    boolean optBigStrings = !p200.getBoolean(Utils.COM_PREFIX+"no.big.strings");

    protected abstract Index getCPIndex(byte tag);

    // Local copy of highest class version.
    private Package.Version highestClassVersion = null;

    /** Call this exactly once, early, to specify the archive major version. */
    public void initHighestClassVersion(Package.Version highestClassVersion) throws IOException {
        if (this.highestClassVersion != null) {
            throw new IOException(
                "Highest class major version is already initialized to " +
                this.highestClassVersion + "; new setting is " + highestClassVersion);
        }
        this.highestClassVersion = highestClassVersion;
        adjustToClassVersion();
    }

    public Package.Version getHighestClassVersion() {
        return highestClassVersion;
    }

    private final boolean isReader = this instanceof PackageReader;

    protected BandStructure() {}

    static final Coding BYTE1 = Coding.of(1,256);

    static final Coding CHAR3 = Coding.of(3,128);
    // Note:  Tried sharper (3,16) with no post-zip benefit.

    // This is best used with BCI values:
    static final Coding BCI5 = Coding.of(5,4);  // mostly 1-byte offsets
    static final Coding BRANCH5 = Coding.of(5,4,2); // mostly forward branches

    static final Coding UNSIGNED5 = Coding.of(5,64);
    static final Coding UDELTA5 = UNSIGNED5.getDeltaCoding();
    // "sharp" (5,64) zips 0.4% better than "medium" (5,128)
    // It zips 1.1% better than "flat" (5,192)

    static final Coding SIGNED5 = Coding.of(5,64,1);  //sharp
    static final Coding DELTA5 = SIGNED5.getDeltaCoding();
    // Note:  Tried (5,128,2) and (5,192,2) with no benefit.

    static final Coding MDELTA5 = Coding.of(5,64,2).getDeltaCoding();

    private static final Coding[] basicCodings = {
        // Table of "Canonical BHSD Codings" from Pack200 spec.
        null,  // _meta_default

        // Fixed-length codings:
        Coding.of(1,256,0),
        Coding.of(1,256,1),
        Coding.of(1,256,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(1,256,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,256,0),
        Coding.of(2,256,1),
        Coding.of(2,256,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,256,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,256,0),
        Coding.of(3,256,1),
        Coding.of(3,256,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,256,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,256,0),
        Coding.of(4,256,1),
        Coding.of(4,256,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,256,1).getDeltaCoding(),

        // Full-range variable-length codings:
        Coding.of(5,  4,0),
        Coding.of(5,  4,1),
        Coding.of(5,  4,2),
        Coding.of(5, 16,0),
        Coding.of(5, 16,1),
        Coding.of(5, 16,2),
        Coding.of(5, 32,0),
        Coding.of(5, 32,1),
        Coding.of(5, 32,2),
        Coding.of(5, 64,0),
        Coding.of(5, 64,1),
        Coding.of(5, 64,2),
        Coding.of(5,128,0),
        Coding.of(5,128,1),
        Coding.of(5,128,2),

        Coding.of(5,  4,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5,  4,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5,  4,2).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5, 16,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5, 16,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5, 16,2).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5, 32,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5, 32,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5, 32,2).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5, 64,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5, 64,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5, 64,2).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5,128,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5,128,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(5,128,2).getDeltaCoding(),

        // Variable length subrange codings:
        Coding.of(2,192,0),
        Coding.of(2,224,0),
        Coding.of(2,240,0),
        Coding.of(2,248,0),
        Coding.of(2,252,0),

        Coding.of(2,  8,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,  8,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2, 16,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2, 16,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2, 32,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2, 32,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2, 64,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2, 64,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,128,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,128,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,192,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,192,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,224,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,224,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,240,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,240,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,248,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(2,248,1).getDeltaCoding(),

        Coding.of(3,192,0),
        Coding.of(3,224,0),
        Coding.of(3,240,0),
        Coding.of(3,248,0),
        Coding.of(3,252,0),

        Coding.of(3,  8,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,  8,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3, 16,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3, 16,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3, 32,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3, 32,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3, 64,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3, 64,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,128,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,128,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,192,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,192,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,224,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,224,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,240,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,240,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,248,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(3,248,1).getDeltaCoding(),

        Coding.of(4,192,0),
        Coding.of(4,224,0),
        Coding.of(4,240,0),
        Coding.of(4,248,0),
        Coding.of(4,252,0),

        Coding.of(4,  8,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,  8,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4, 16,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4, 16,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4, 32,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4, 32,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4, 64,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4, 64,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,128,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,128,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,192,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,192,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,224,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,224,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,240,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,240,1).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,248,0).getDeltaCoding(),
        Coding.of(4,248,1).getDeltaCoding(),

        null
    };
    private static final Map<Coding, Integer> basicCodingIndexes;
    static {
        assert(basicCodings[_meta_default] == null);
        assert(basicCodings[_meta_canon_min] != null);
        assert(basicCodings[_meta_canon_max] != null);
        Map<Coding, Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
        for (int i = 0; i < basicCodings.length; i++) {
            Coding c = basicCodings[i];
            if (c == null)  continue;
            assert(i >= _meta_canon_min);
            assert(i <= _meta_canon_max);
            map.put(c, i);
        }
        basicCodingIndexes = map;
    }
    public static Coding codingForIndex(int i) {
        return i < basicCodings.length ? basicCodings[i] : null;
    }
    public static int indexOf(Coding c) {
        Integer i = basicCodingIndexes.get(c);
        if (i == null)  return 0;
        return i.intValue();
    }
    public static Coding[] getBasicCodings() {
        return basicCodings.clone();
    }

    protected byte[] bandHeaderBytes;    // used for input only
    protected int    bandHeaderBytePos;  // BHB read pointer, for input only
    protected int    bandHeaderBytePos0; // for debug

    protected CodingMethod getBandHeader(int XB, Coding regularCoding) {
        CodingMethod[] res = {null};
        // push back XB onto the band header bytes
        bandHeaderBytes[--bandHeaderBytePos] = (byte) XB;
        bandHeaderBytePos0 = bandHeaderBytePos;
        // scan forward through XB and any additional band header bytes
        bandHeaderBytePos = parseMetaCoding(bandHeaderBytes,
                                            bandHeaderBytePos,
                                            regularCoding,
                                            res);
        return res[0];
    }

    public static int parseMetaCoding(byte[] bytes, int pos, Coding dflt, CodingMethod[] res) {
        if ((bytes[pos] & 0xFF) == _meta_default) {
            res[0] = dflt;
            return pos+1;
        }
        int pos2;
        pos2 = Coding.parseMetaCoding(bytes, pos, dflt, res);
        if (pos2 > pos)  return pos2;
        pos2 = PopulationCoding.parseMetaCoding(bytes, pos, dflt, res);
        if (pos2 > pos)  return pos2;
        pos2 = AdaptiveCoding.parseMetaCoding(bytes, pos, dflt, res);
        if (pos2 > pos)  return pos2;
        throw new RuntimeException("Bad meta-coding op "+(bytes[pos]&0xFF));
    }

    static final int SHORT_BAND_HEURISTIC = 100;

    public static final int NO_PHASE        = 0;

    // package writing phases:
    public static final int COLLECT_PHASE   = 1; // collect data before write
    public static final int FROZEN_PHASE    = 3; // no longer collecting
    public static final int WRITE_PHASE     = 5; // ready to write bytes

    // package reading phases:
    public static final int EXPECT_PHASE    = 2; // gather expected counts
    public static final int READ_PHASE      = 4; // ready to read bytes
    public static final int DISBURSE_PHASE  = 6; // pass out data after read

    public static final int DONE_PHASE      = 8; // done writing or reading

    static boolean phaseIsRead(int p) {
        return (p % 2) == 0;
    }
    static int phaseCmp(int p0, int p1) {
        assert((p0 % 2) == (p1 % 2) || (p0 % 8) == 0 || (p1 % 8) == 0);
        return p0 - p1;
    }

    /** The packed file is divided up into a number of segments.
     *  Most segments are typed as ValueBand, strongly-typed sequences
     *  of integer values, all interpreted in a single way.
     *  A few segments are ByteBands, which hetergeneous sequences
     *  of bytes.
     *
     *  The two phases for writing a packed file are COLLECT and WRITE.
     *  1. When writing a packed file, each band collects
     *  data in an ad-hoc order.
     *  2. At the end, each band is assigned a coding scheme,
     *  and then all the bands are written in their global order.
     *
     *  The three phases for reading a packed file are EXPECT, READ,
     *  and DISBURSE.
     *  1. For each band, the expected number of integers  is determined.
     *  2. The data is actually read from the file into the band.
     *  3. The band pays out its values as requested, in an ad hoc order.
     *
     *  When the last phase of a band is done, it is marked so (DONE).
     *  Clearly, these phases must be properly ordered WRT each other.
     */
    abstract class Band {
        private int    phase = NO_PHASE;
        private final  String name;

        private int    valuesExpected;

        protected long outputSize = -1;  // cache

        public final Coding regularCoding;

        public final int seqForDebug;
        public int       elementCountForDebug;


        protected Band(String name, Coding regularCoding) {
            this.name = name;
            this.regularCoding = regularCoding;
            this.seqForDebug = ++nextSeqForDebug;
            if (verbose > 2)
                Utils.log.fine("Band "+seqForDebug+" is "+name);
            // caller must call init
        }

        public Band init() {
            // Cannot due this from the constructor, because constructor
            // may wish to initialize some subclass variables.
            // Set initial phase for reading or writing:
            if (isReader)
                readyToExpect();
            else
                readyToCollect();
            return this;
        }

        // common operations
        boolean isReader() { return isReader; }
        int phase() { return phase; }
        String name() { return name; }

        /** Return -1 if data buffer not allocated, else max length. */
        public abstract int capacity();

        /** Allocate data buffer to specified length. */
        protected abstract void setCapacity(int cap);

        /** Return current number of values in buffer, which must exist. */
        public abstract int length();

        protected abstract int valuesRemainingForDebug();

        public final int valuesExpected() {
            return valuesExpected;
        }

        /** Write out bytes, encoding the values. */
        public final void writeTo(OutputStream out) throws IOException {
            assert(assertReadyToWriteTo(this, out));
            setPhase(WRITE_PHASE);
            // subclasses continue by writing their contents to output
            writeDataTo(out);
            doneWriting();
        }

        abstract void chooseBandCodings() throws IOException;

        public final long outputSize() {
            if (outputSize >= 0) {
                long size = outputSize;
                assert(size == computeOutputSize());
                return size;
            }
            return computeOutputSize();
        }

        protected abstract long computeOutputSize();

        protected abstract void writeDataTo(OutputStream out) throws IOException;

        /** Expect a certain number of values. */
        void expectLength(int l) {
            assert(assertPhase(this, EXPECT_PHASE));
            assert(valuesExpected == 0);  // all at once
            assert(l >= 0);
            valuesExpected = l;
        }
        /** Expect more values.  (Multiple calls accumulate.) */
        void expectMoreLength(int l) {
            assert(assertPhase(this, EXPECT_PHASE));
            valuesExpected += l;
        }


        /// Phase change markers.

        private void readyToCollect() { // called implicitly by constructor
            setCapacity(1);
            setPhase(COLLECT_PHASE);
        }
        protected void doneWriting() {
            assert(assertPhase(this, WRITE_PHASE));
            setPhase(DONE_PHASE);
        }
        private void readyToExpect() { // called implicitly by constructor
            setPhase(EXPECT_PHASE);
        }
        /** Read in bytes, decoding the values. */
        public final void readFrom(InputStream in) throws IOException {
            assert(assertReadyToReadFrom(this, in));
            setCapacity(valuesExpected());
            setPhase(READ_PHASE);
            // subclasses continue by reading their contents from input:
            readDataFrom(in);
            readyToDisburse();
        }
        protected abstract void readDataFrom(InputStream in) throws IOException;
        protected void readyToDisburse() {
            if (verbose > 1)  Utils.log.fine("readyToDisburse "+this);
            setPhase(DISBURSE_PHASE);
        }
        public void doneDisbursing() {
            assert(assertPhase(this, DISBURSE_PHASE));
            setPhase(DONE_PHASE);
        }
        public final void doneWithUnusedBand() {
            if (isReader) {
                assert(assertPhase(this, EXPECT_PHASE));
                assert(valuesExpected() == 0);
                // Fast forward:
                setPhase(READ_PHASE);
                setPhase(DISBURSE_PHASE);
                setPhase(DONE_PHASE);
            } else {
                setPhase(FROZEN_PHASE);
            }
        }

        protected void setPhase(int newPhase) {
            assert(assertPhaseChangeOK(this, phase, newPhase));
            this.phase = newPhase;
        }

        protected int lengthForDebug = -1;  // DEBUG ONLY
        @Override
        public String toString() {  // DEBUG ONLY
            int length = (lengthForDebug != -1 ? lengthForDebug : length());
            String str = name;
            if (length != 0)
                str += "[" + length + "]";
            if (elementCountForDebug != 0)
                str += "(" + elementCountForDebug + ")";
            return str;
        }
    }

    class ValueBand extends Band {
        private int[]  values;   // must be null in EXPECT phase
        private int    length;
        private int    valuesDisbursed;

        private CodingMethod bandCoding;
        private byte[] metaCoding;

        protected ValueBand(String name, Coding regularCoding) {
            super(name, regularCoding);
        }

        @Override
        public int capacity() {
            return values == null ? -1 : values.length;
        }

        /** Declare predicted or needed capacity. */
        @Override
        protected void setCapacity(int cap) {
            assert(length <= cap);
            if (cap == -1) { values = null; return; }
            values = realloc(values, cap);
        }

        @Override
        public int length() {
            return length;
        }
        @Override
        protected int valuesRemainingForDebug() {
            return length - valuesDisbursed;
        }
        protected int valueAtForDebug(int i) {
            return values[i];
        }

        void patchValue(int i, int value) {
            // Only one use for this.
            assert(this == archive_header_S);
            assert(i == AH_ARCHIVE_SIZE_HI || i == AH_ARCHIVE_SIZE_LO);
            assert(i < length);  // must have already output a dummy
            values[i] = value;
            outputSize = -1;  // decache
        }

        protected void initializeValues(int[] values) {
            assert(assertCanChangeLength(this));
            assert(length == 0);
            this.values = values;
            this.length = values.length;
        }

        /** Collect one value, or store one decoded value. */
        protected void addValue(int x) {
            assert(assertCanChangeLength(this));
            if (length == values.length)
                setCapacity(length < 1000 ? length * 10 : length * 2);
            values[length++] = x;
        }

        private boolean canVaryCoding() {
            if (!optVaryCodings)           return false;
            if (length == 0)               return false;
            // Can't read band_headers w/o the archive header:
            if (this == archive_header_0)  return false;
            if (this == archive_header_S)  return false;
            if (this == archive_header_1)  return false;
            // BYTE1 bands can't vary codings, but the others can.
            // All that's needed for the initial escape is at least
            // 256 negative values or more than 256 non-negative values
            return (regularCoding.min() <= -256 || regularCoding.max() >= 256);
        }

        private boolean shouldVaryCoding() {
            assert(canVaryCoding());
            if (effort < MAX_EFFORT && length < SHORT_BAND_HEURISTIC)
                return false;
            return true;
        }

        @Override
        protected void chooseBandCodings() throws IOException {
            boolean canVary = canVaryCoding();
            if (!canVary || !shouldVaryCoding()) {
                if (regularCoding.canRepresent(values, 0, length)) {
                    bandCoding = regularCoding;
                } else {
                    assert(canVary);
                    if (verbose > 1)
                        Utils.log.fine("regular coding fails in band "+name());
                    bandCoding = UNSIGNED5;
                }
                outputSize = -1;
            } else {
                int[] sizes = {0,0};
                bandCoding = chooseCoding(values, 0, length,
                                          regularCoding, name(),
                                          sizes);
                outputSize = sizes[CodingChooser.BYTE_SIZE];
                if (outputSize == 0)  // CodingChooser failed to size it.
                    outputSize = -1;
            }

            // Compute and save the meta-coding bytes also.
            if (bandCoding != regularCoding) {
                metaCoding = bandCoding.getMetaCoding(regularCoding);
                if (verbose > 1) {
                    Utils.log.fine("alternate coding "+this+" "+bandCoding);
                }
            } else if (canVary &&
                       decodeEscapeValue(values[0], regularCoding) >= 0) {
                // Need an explicit default.
                metaCoding = defaultMetaCoding;
            } else {
                // Common case:  Zero bytes of meta coding.
                metaCoding = noMetaCoding;
            }
            if (metaCoding.length > 0
                && (verbose > 2 || verbose > 1 && metaCoding.length > 1)) {
                StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
                for (int i = 0; i < metaCoding.length; i++) {
                    if (i == 1)  sb.append(" /");
                    sb.append(" ").append(metaCoding[i] & 0xFF);
                }
                Utils.log.fine("   meta-coding "+sb);
            }

            assert((outputSize < 0) ||
                   !(bandCoding instanceof Coding) ||
                   (outputSize == ((Coding)bandCoding)
                    .getLength(values, 0, length)))
                : (bandCoding+" : "+
                   outputSize+" != "+
                   ((Coding)bandCoding).getLength(values, 0, length)
                   +" ?= "+getCodingChooser().computeByteSize(bandCoding,values,0,length)
                   );

            // Compute outputSize of the escape value X, if any.
            if (metaCoding.length > 0) {
                // First byte XB of meta-coding is treated specially,
                // but any other bytes go into the band headers band.
                // This must be done before any other output happens.
                if (outputSize >= 0)
                    outputSize += computeEscapeSize();  // good cache
                // Other bytes go into band_headers.
                for (int i = 1; i < metaCoding.length; i++) {
                    band_headers.putByte(metaCoding[i] & 0xFF);
                }
            }
        }

        @Override
        protected long computeOutputSize() {
            outputSize = getCodingChooser().computeByteSize(bandCoding,
                                                            values, 0, length);
            assert(outputSize < Integer.MAX_VALUE);
            outputSize += computeEscapeSize();
            return outputSize;
        }

        protected int computeEscapeSize() {
            if (metaCoding.length == 0)  return 0;
            int XB = metaCoding[0] & 0xFF;
            int X = encodeEscapeValue(XB, regularCoding);
            return regularCoding.setD(0).getLength(X);
        }

        @Override
        protected void writeDataTo(OutputStream out) throws IOException {
            if (length == 0)  return;  // nothing to write
            long len0 = 0;
            if (out == outputCounter) {
                len0 = outputCounter.getCount();
            }
            if (metaCoding.length > 0) {
                int XB = metaCoding[0] & 0xFF;
                // We need an explicit band header, either because
                // there is a non-default coding method, or because
                // the first value would be parsed as an escape value.
                int X = encodeEscapeValue(XB, regularCoding);
                //System.out.println("X="+X+" XB="+XB+" in "+this);
                regularCoding.setD(0).writeTo(out, X);
            }
            bandCoding.writeArrayTo(out, values, 0, length);
            if (out == outputCounter) {
                assert(outputSize == outputCounter.getCount() - len0)
                    : (outputSize+" != "+outputCounter.getCount()+"-"+len0);
            }
            if (optDumpBands)  dumpBand();
        }

        @Override
        protected void readDataFrom(InputStream in) throws IOException {
            length = valuesExpected();
            if (length == 0)  return;  // nothing to read
            if (verbose > 1)
                Utils.log.fine("Reading band "+this);
            if (!canVaryCoding()) {
                bandCoding = regularCoding;
                metaCoding = noMetaCoding;
            } else {
                assert(in.markSupported());  // input must be buffered
                in.mark(Coding.B_MAX);
                int X = regularCoding.setD(0).readFrom(in);
                int XB = decodeEscapeValue(X, regularCoding);
                if (XB < 0) {
                    // Do not consume this value.  No alternate coding.
                    in.reset();
                    bandCoding = regularCoding;
                    metaCoding = noMetaCoding;
                } else if (XB == _meta_default) {
                    bandCoding = regularCoding;
                    metaCoding = defaultMetaCoding;
                } else {
                    if (verbose > 2)
                        Utils.log.fine("found X="+X+" => XB="+XB);
                    bandCoding = getBandHeader(XB, regularCoding);
                    // This is really used only by dumpBands.
                    int p0 = bandHeaderBytePos0;
                    int p1 = bandHeaderBytePos;
                    metaCoding = new byte[p1-p0];
                    System.arraycopy(bandHeaderBytes, p0,
                                     metaCoding, 0, metaCoding.length);
                }
            }
            if (bandCoding != regularCoding) {
                if (verbose > 1)
                    Utils.log.fine(name()+": irregular coding "+bandCoding);
            }
            bandCoding.readArrayFrom(in, values, 0, length);
            if (optDumpBands)  dumpBand();
        }

        @Override
        public void doneDisbursing() {
            super.doneDisbursing();
            values = null;  // for GC
        }

        private void dumpBand() throws IOException {
            assert(optDumpBands);
            try (PrintStream ps = new PrintStream(getDumpStream(this, ".txt"))) {
                String irr = (bandCoding == regularCoding) ? "" : " irregular";
                ps.print("# length="+length+
                         " size="+outputSize()+
                         irr+" coding="+bandCoding);
                if (metaCoding != noMetaCoding) {
                    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
                    for (int i = 0; i < metaCoding.length; i++) {
                        if (i == 1)  sb.append(" /");
                        sb.append(" ").append(metaCoding[i] & 0xFF);
                    }
                    ps.print(" //header: "+sb);
                }
                printArrayTo(ps, values, 0, length);
            }
            try (OutputStream ds = getDumpStream(this, ".bnd")) {
                bandCoding.writeArrayTo(ds, values, 0, length);
            }
        }

        /** Disburse one value. */
        protected int getValue() {
            assert(phase() == DISBURSE_PHASE);
            // when debugging return a zero if lengths are zero
            if (optDebugBands && length == 0 && valuesDisbursed == length)
                return 0;
            assert(valuesDisbursed <= length);
            return values[valuesDisbursed++];
        }

        /** Reset for another pass over the same value set. */
        public void resetForSecondPass() {
            assert(phase() == DISBURSE_PHASE);
            assert(valuesDisbursed == length());  // 1st pass is complete
            valuesDisbursed = 0;
        }
    }

    class ByteBand extends Band {
        private ByteArrayOutputStream bytes;  // input buffer
        private ByteArrayOutputStream bytesForDump;
        private InputStream in;

        public ByteBand(String name) {
            super(name, BYTE1);
        }

        @Override
        public int capacity() {
            return bytes == null ? -1 : Integer.MAX_VALUE;
        }
        @Override
        protected void setCapacity(int cap) {
            assert(bytes == null);  // do this just once
            bytes = new ByteArrayOutputStream(cap);
        }
        public void destroy() {
            lengthForDebug = length();
            bytes = null;
        }

        @Override
        public int length() {
            return bytes == null ? -1 : bytes.size();
        }
        public void reset() {
            bytes.reset();
        }
        @Override
        protected int valuesRemainingForDebug() {
            return (bytes == null) ? -1 : ((ByteArrayInputStream)in).available();
        }

        @Override
        protected void chooseBandCodings() throws IOException {
            // No-op.
            assert(decodeEscapeValue(regularCoding.min(), regularCoding) < 0);
            assert(decodeEscapeValue(regularCoding.max(), regularCoding) < 0);
        }

        @Override
        protected long computeOutputSize() {
            // do not cache
            return bytes.size();
        }

        @Override
        public void writeDataTo(OutputStream out) throws IOException {
            if (length() == 0)  return;
            bytes.writeTo(out);
            if (optDumpBands)  dumpBand();
            destroy();  // done with the bits!
        }

        private void dumpBand() throws IOException {
            assert(optDumpBands);
            try (OutputStream ds = getDumpStream(this, ".bnd")) {
                if (bytesForDump != null)
                    bytesForDump.writeTo(ds);
                else
                    bytes.writeTo(ds);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void readDataFrom(InputStream in) throws IOException {
            int vex = valuesExpected();
            if (vex == 0)  return;
            if (verbose > 1) {
                lengthForDebug = vex;
                Utils.log.fine("Reading band "+this);
                lengthForDebug = -1;
            }
            byte[] buf = new byte[Math.min(vex, 1<<14)];
            while (vex > 0) {
                int nr = in.read(buf, 0, Math.min(vex, buf.length));
                if (nr < 0)  throw new EOFException();
                bytes.write(buf, 0, nr);
                vex -= nr;
            }
            if (optDumpBands)  dumpBand();
        }

        @Override
        public void readyToDisburse() {
            in = new ByteArrayInputStream(bytes.toByteArray());
            super.readyToDisburse();
        }

        @Override
        public void doneDisbursing() {
            super.doneDisbursing();
            if (optDumpBands
                && bytesForDump != null && bytesForDump.size() > 0) {
                try {
                    dumpBand();
                } catch (IOException ee) {
                    throw new RuntimeException(ee);
                }
            }
            in = null; // GC
            bytes = null;  // GC
            bytesForDump = null;  // GC
        }

        // alternative to readFrom:
        public void setInputStreamFrom(InputStream in) throws IOException {
            assert(bytes == null);
            assert(assertReadyToReadFrom(this, in));
            setPhase(READ_PHASE);
            this.in = in;
            if (optDumpBands) {
                // Tap the stream.
                bytesForDump = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
                this.in = new FilterInputStream(in) {
                    @Override
                    public int read() throws IOException {
                        int ch = in.read();
                        if (ch >= 0)  bytesForDump.write(ch);
                        return ch;
                    }
                    @Override
                    public int read(byte b[], int off, int len) throws IOException {
                        int nr = in.read(b, off, len);
                        if (nr >= 0)  bytesForDump.write(b, off, nr);
                        return nr;
                    }
                };
            }
            super.readyToDisburse();
        }

        public OutputStream collectorStream() {
            assert(phase() == COLLECT_PHASE);
            assert(bytes != null);
            return bytes;
        }

        public InputStream getInputStream() {
            assert(phase() == DISBURSE_PHASE);
            assert(in != null);
            return in;
        }
        public int getByte() throws IOException {
            int b = getInputStream().read();
            if (b < 0)  throw new EOFException();
            return b;
        }
        public void putByte(int b) throws IOException {
            assert(b == (b & 0xFF));
            collectorStream().write(b);
        }
        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return "byte "+super.toString();
        }
    }

    class IntBand extends ValueBand {
        // The usual coding for bands is 7bit/5byte/delta.
        public IntBand(String name, Coding regularCoding) {
            super(name, regularCoding);
        }

        public void putInt(int x) {
            assert(phase() == COLLECT_PHASE);
            addValue(x);
        }

        public int getInt() {
            return getValue();
        }
        /** Return the sum of all values in this band. */
        public int getIntTotal() {
            assert(phase() == DISBURSE_PHASE);
            // assert that this is the whole pass; no other reads allowed
            assert(valuesRemainingForDebug() == length());
            int total = 0;
            for (int k = length(); k > 0; k--) {
                total += getInt();
            }
            resetForSecondPass();
            return total;
        }
        /** Return the occurrence count of a specific value in this band. */
        public int getIntCount(int value) {
            assert(phase() == DISBURSE_PHASE);
            // assert that this is the whole pass; no other reads allowed
            assert(valuesRemainingForDebug() == length());
            int total = 0;
            for (int k = length(); k > 0; k--) {
                if (getInt() == value) {
                    total += 1;
                }
            }
            resetForSecondPass();
            return total;
        }
    }

    static int getIntTotal(int[] values) {
        int total = 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < values.length; i++) {
            total += values[i];
        }
        return total;
    }

    class CPRefBand extends ValueBand {
        Index index;
        boolean nullOK;

        public CPRefBand(String name, Coding regularCoding, byte cpTag, boolean nullOK) {
            super(name, regularCoding);
            this.nullOK = nullOK;
            if (cpTag != CONSTANT_None)
                setBandIndex(this, cpTag);
        }
        public CPRefBand(String name, Coding regularCoding, byte cpTag) {
            this(name, regularCoding, cpTag, false);
        }
        public CPRefBand(String name, Coding regularCoding, Object undef) {
            this(name, regularCoding, CONSTANT_None, false);
        }

        public void setIndex(Index index) {
            this.index = index;
        }

        protected void readDataFrom(InputStream in) throws IOException {
            super.readDataFrom(in);
            assert(assertValidCPRefs(this));
        }

        /** Write a constant pool reference. */
        public void putRef(Entry e) {
            addValue(encodeRefOrNull(e, index));
        }
        public void putRef(Entry e, Index index) {
            assert(this.index == null);
            addValue(encodeRefOrNull(e, index));
        }
        public void putRef(Entry e, byte cptag) {
            putRef(e, getCPIndex(cptag));
        }

        public Entry getRef() {
            if (index == null)  Utils.log.warning("No index for "+this);
            assert(index != null);
            return decodeRefOrNull(getValue(), index);
        }
        public Entry getRef(Index index) {
            assert(this.index == null);
            return decodeRefOrNull(getValue(), index);
        }
        public Entry getRef(byte cptag) {
            return getRef(getCPIndex(cptag));
        }

        private int encodeRefOrNull(Entry e, Index index) {
            int nonNullCode;  // NNC is the coding which assumes nulls are rare
            if (e == null) {
                nonNullCode = -1;  // negative values are rare
            } else {
                nonNullCode = encodeRef(e, index);
            }
            // If nulls are expected, increment, to make -1 code turn to 0.
            return (nullOK ? 1 : 0) + nonNullCode;
        }
        private Entry decodeRefOrNull(int code, Index index) {
            // Inverse to encodeRefOrNull...
            int nonNullCode = code - (nullOK ? 1 : 0);
            if (nonNullCode == -1) {
                return null;
            } else {
                return decodeRef(nonNullCode, index);
            }
        }
    }

    // Bootstrap support for CPRefBands.  These are needed to record
    // intended CP indexes, before the CP has been created.
    private final List<CPRefBand> allKQBands = new ArrayList<>();
    private List<Object[]> needPredefIndex = new ArrayList<>();


    int encodeRef(Entry e, Index ix) {
        if (ix == null)
            throw new RuntimeException("null index for " + e.stringValue());
        int coding = ix.indexOf(e);
        if (verbose > 2)
            Utils.log.fine("putRef "+coding+" => "+e);
        return coding;
    }

    Entry decodeRef(int n, Index ix) {
        if (n < 0 || n >= ix.size())
            Utils.log.warning("decoding bad ref "+n+" in "+ix);
        Entry e = ix.getEntry(n);
        if (verbose > 2)
            Utils.log.fine("getRef "+n+" => "+e);
        return e;
    }

    private CodingChooser codingChooser;
    protected CodingChooser getCodingChooser() {
        if (codingChooser == null) {
            codingChooser = new CodingChooser(effort, basicCodings);
            if (codingChooser.stress != null
                && this instanceof PackageWriter) {
                // Twist the random state based on my first file.
                // This sends each segment off in a different direction.
                List<Package.Class> classes = ((PackageWriter)this).pkg.classes;
                if (!classes.isEmpty()) {
                    Package.Class cls = classes.get(0);
                    codingChooser.addStressSeed(cls.getName().hashCode());
                }
            }
        }
        return codingChooser;
    }

    public CodingMethod chooseCoding(int[] values, int start, int end,
                                     Coding regular, String bandName,
                                     int[] sizes) {
        assert(optVaryCodings);
        if (effort <= MIN_EFFORT) {
            return regular;
        }
        CodingChooser cc = getCodingChooser();
        if (verbose > 1 || cc.verbose > 1) {
            Utils.log.fine("--- chooseCoding "+bandName);
        }
        return cc.choose(values, start, end, regular, sizes);
    }

    static final byte[] defaultMetaCoding = { _meta_default };
    static final byte[] noMetaCoding      = {};

    // The first value in a band is always coded with the default coding D.
    // If this first value X is an escape value, it actually represents the
    // first (and perhaps only) byte of a meta-coding.
    //
    // If D.S != 0 and D includes the range [-256..-1],
    // the escape values are in that range,
    // and the first byte XB is -1-X.
    //
    // If D.S == 0 and D includes the range [(D.L)..(D.L)+255],
    // the escape values are in that range,
    // and XB is X-(D.L).
    //
    // This representation is designed so that a band header is unlikely
    // to be confused with the initial value of a headerless band,
    // and yet so that a band header is likely to occupy only a byte or two.
    //
    // Result is in [0..255] if XB was successfully extracted, else -1.
    // See section "Coding Specifier Meta-Encoding" in the JSR 200 spec.
    protected static int decodeEscapeValue(int X, Coding regularCoding) {
        // The first value in a band is always coded with the default coding D.
        // If this first value X is an escape value, it actually represents the
        // first (and perhaps only) byte of a meta-coding.
        // Result is in [0..255] if XB was successfully extracted, else -1.
        if (regularCoding.B() == 1 || regularCoding.L() == 0)
            return -1;  // degenerate regular coding (BYTE1)
        if (regularCoding.S() != 0) {
            if (-256 <= X && X <= -1 && regularCoding.min() <= -256) {
                int XB = -1-X;
                assert(XB >= 0 && XB < 256);
                return XB;
            }
        } else {
            int L = regularCoding.L();
            if (L <= X && X <= L+255 && regularCoding.max() >= L+255) {
                int XB = X-L;
                assert(XB >= 0 && XB < 256);
                return XB;
            }
        }
        return -1;  // negative value for failure
    }
    // Inverse to decodeEscapeValue().
    protected static int encodeEscapeValue(int XB, Coding regularCoding) {
        assert(XB >= 0 && XB < 256);
        assert(regularCoding.B() > 1 && regularCoding.L() > 0);
        int X;
        if (regularCoding.S() != 0) {
            assert(regularCoding.min() <= -256);
            X = -1-XB;
        } else {
            int L = regularCoding.L();
            assert(regularCoding.max() >= L+255);
            X = XB+L;
        }
        assert(decodeEscapeValue(X, regularCoding) == XB)
            : (regularCoding+" XB="+XB+" X="+X);
        return X;
    }

    static {
        boolean checkXB = false;
        assert(checkXB = true);
        if (checkXB) {
            for (int i = 0; i < basicCodings.length; i++) {
                Coding D = basicCodings[i];
                if (D == null)   continue;
                if (D.B() == 1)  continue;
                if (D.L() == 0)  continue;
                for (int XB = 0; XB <= 255; XB++) {
                    // The following exercises decodeEscapeValue also:
                    encodeEscapeValue(XB, D);
                }
            }
        }
    }

    class MultiBand extends Band {
        MultiBand(String name, Coding regularCoding) {
            super(name, regularCoding);
        }

        @Override
        public Band init() {
            super.init();
            // This is all just to keep the asserts happy:
            setCapacity(0);
            if (phase() == EXPECT_PHASE) {
                // Fast forward:
                setPhase(READ_PHASE);
                setPhase(DISBURSE_PHASE);
            }
            return this;
        }

        Band[] bands     = new Band[10];
        int    bandCount = 0;

        int size() {
            return bandCount;
        }
        Band get(int i) {
            assert(i < bandCount);
            return bands[i];
        }
        Band[] toArray() {
            return (Band[]) realloc(bands, bandCount);
        }

        void add(Band b) {
            assert(bandCount == 0 || notePrevForAssert(b, bands[bandCount-1]));
            if (bandCount == bands.length) {
                bands = (Band[]) realloc(bands);
            }
            bands[bandCount++] = b;
        }

        ByteBand newByteBand(String name) {
            ByteBand b = new ByteBand(name);
            b.init(); add(b);
            return b;
        }
        IntBand newIntBand(String name) {
            IntBand b = new IntBand(name, regularCoding);
            b.init(); add(b);
            return b;
        }
        IntBand newIntBand(String name, Coding regularCoding) {
            IntBand b = new IntBand(name, regularCoding);
            b.init(); add(b);
            return b;
        }
        MultiBand newMultiBand(String name, Coding regularCoding) {
            MultiBand b = new MultiBand(name, regularCoding);
            b.init(); add(b);
            return b;
        }
        CPRefBand newCPRefBand(String name, byte cpTag) {
            CPRefBand b = new CPRefBand(name, regularCoding, cpTag);
            b.init(); add(b);
            return b;
        }
        CPRefBand newCPRefBand(String name, Coding regularCoding,
                               byte cpTag) {
            CPRefBand b = new CPRefBand(name, regularCoding, cpTag);
            b.init(); add(b);
            return b;
        }
        CPRefBand newCPRefBand(String name, Coding regularCoding,
                               byte cpTag, boolean nullOK) {
            CPRefBand b = new CPRefBand(name, regularCoding, cpTag, nullOK);
            b.init(); add(b);
            return b;
        }

        int bandCount() { return bandCount; }

        private int cap = -1;
        @Override
        public int capacity() { return cap; }
        @Override
        public void setCapacity(int cap) { this.cap = cap; }

        @Override
        public int length() { return 0; }
        @Override
        public int valuesRemainingForDebug() { return 0; }

        @Override
        protected void chooseBandCodings() throws IOException {
            // coding decision pass
            for (int i = 0; i < bandCount; i++) {
                Band b = bands[i];
                b.chooseBandCodings();
            }
        }

        @Override
        protected long computeOutputSize() {
            // coding decision pass
            long sum = 0;
            for (int i = 0; i < bandCount; i++) {
                Band b = bands[i];
                long bsize = b.outputSize();
                assert(bsize >= 0) : b;
                sum += bsize;
            }
            // do not cache
            return sum;
        }

        @Override
        protected void writeDataTo(OutputStream out) throws IOException {
            long preCount = 0;
            if (outputCounter != null)  preCount = outputCounter.getCount();
            for (int i = 0; i < bandCount; i++) {
                Band b = bands[i];
                b.writeTo(out);
                if (outputCounter != null) {
                    long postCount = outputCounter.getCount();
                    long len = postCount - preCount;
                    preCount = postCount;
                    if ((verbose > 0 && len > 0) || verbose > 1) {
                        Utils.log.info("  ...wrote "+len+" bytes from "+b);
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        @Override
        protected void readDataFrom(InputStream in) throws IOException {
            assert(false);  // not called?
            for (int i = 0; i < bandCount; i++) {
                Band b = bands[i];
                b.readFrom(in);
                if ((verbose > 0 && b.length() > 0) || verbose > 1) {
                    Utils.log.info("  ...read "+b);
                }
            }
        }

        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return "{"+bandCount()+" bands: "+super.toString()+"}";
        }
    }

    /**
     * An output stream which counts the number of bytes written.
     */
    private static
    class ByteCounter extends FilterOutputStream {
        // (should go public under the name CountingOutputStream?)

        private long count;

        public ByteCounter(OutputStream out) {
            super(out);
        }

        public long getCount() { return count; }
        public void setCount(long c) { count = c; }

        @Override
        public void write(int b) throws IOException {
            count++;
            if (out != null)  out.write(b);
        }
        @Override
        public void write(byte b[], int off, int len) throws IOException {
            count += len;
            if (out != null)  out.write(b, off, len);
        }
        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return String.valueOf(getCount());
        }
    }
    ByteCounter outputCounter;

    void writeAllBandsTo(OutputStream out) throws IOException {
        // Wrap a byte-counter around the output stream.
        outputCounter = new ByteCounter(out);
        out = outputCounter;
        all_bands.writeTo(out);
        if (verbose > 0) {
            long nbytes = outputCounter.getCount();
            Utils.log.info("Wrote total of "+nbytes+" bytes.");
            assert(nbytes == archiveSize0+archiveSize1);
        }
        outputCounter = null;
    }

    // random AO_XXX bits, decoded from the archive header
    protected int archiveOptions;

    // archiveSize1 sizes most of the archive [archive_options..file_bits).
    protected long archiveSize0; // size through archive_size_lo
    protected long archiveSize1; // size reported in archive_header
    protected int  archiveNextCount; // reported in archive_header

    static final int AH_LENGTH_0 = 3;     // archive_header_0 = {minver, majver, options}
    static final int AH_LENGTH_MIN = 15;  // observed in spec {header_0[3], cp_counts[8], class_counts[4]}
    // Length contributions from optional archive size fields:
    static final int AH_LENGTH_S = 2; // archive_header_S = optional {size_hi, size_lo}
    static final int AH_ARCHIVE_SIZE_HI = 0; // offset in archive_header_S
    static final int AH_ARCHIVE_SIZE_LO = 1; // offset in archive_header_S
    // Length contributions from optional header fields:
    static final int AH_FILE_HEADER_LEN = 5; // file_counts = {{size_hi, size_lo}, next, modtime, files}
    static final int AH_SPECIAL_FORMAT_LEN = 2; // special_counts = {layouts, band_headers}
    static final int AH_CP_NUMBER_LEN = 4;  // cp_number_counts = {int, float, long, double}
    static final int AH_CP_EXTRA_LEN = 4;  // cp_attr_counts = {MH, MT, InDy, BSM}

    // Common structure of attribute band groups:
    static final int AB_FLAGS_HI = 0;
    static final int AB_FLAGS_LO = 1;
    static final int AB_ATTR_COUNT = 2;
    static final int AB_ATTR_INDEXES = 3;
    static final int AB_ATTR_CALLS = 4;

    static IntBand getAttrBand(MultiBand xxx_attr_bands, int which) {
        IntBand b = (IntBand) xxx_attr_bands.get(which);
        switch (which) {
        case AB_FLAGS_HI:
            assert(b.name().endsWith("_flags_hi")); break;
        case AB_FLAGS_LO:
            assert(b.name().endsWith("_flags_lo")); break;
        case AB_ATTR_COUNT:
            assert(b.name().endsWith("_attr_count")); break;
        case AB_ATTR_INDEXES:
            assert(b.name().endsWith("_attr_indexes")); break;
        case AB_ATTR_CALLS:
            assert(b.name().endsWith("_attr_calls")); break;
        default:
            assert(false); break;
        }
        return b;
    }

    private static final boolean NULL_IS_OK = true;

    MultiBand all_bands = (MultiBand) new MultiBand("(package)", UNSIGNED5).init();

    // file header (various random bytes)
    ByteBand archive_magic = all_bands.newByteBand("archive_magic");
    IntBand  archive_header_0 = all_bands.newIntBand("archive_header_0", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand  archive_header_S = all_bands.newIntBand("archive_header_S", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand  archive_header_1 = all_bands.newIntBand("archive_header_1", UNSIGNED5);
    ByteBand band_headers = all_bands.newByteBand("band_headers");

    // constant pool contents
    MultiBand cp_bands = all_bands.newMultiBand("(constant_pool)", DELTA5);
    IntBand   cp_Utf8_prefix = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_Utf8_prefix");
    IntBand   cp_Utf8_suffix = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_Utf8_suffix", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand   cp_Utf8_chars = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_Utf8_chars", CHAR3);
    IntBand   cp_Utf8_big_suffix = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_Utf8_big_suffix");
    MultiBand cp_Utf8_big_chars = cp_bands.newMultiBand("(cp_Utf8_big_chars)", DELTA5);
    IntBand   cp_Int = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_Int", UDELTA5);
    IntBand   cp_Float = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_Float", UDELTA5);
    IntBand   cp_Long_hi = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_Long_hi", UDELTA5);
    IntBand   cp_Long_lo = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_Long_lo");
    IntBand   cp_Double_hi = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_Double_hi", UDELTA5);
    IntBand   cp_Double_lo = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_Double_lo");
    CPRefBand cp_String = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_String", UDELTA5, CONSTANT_Utf8);
    CPRefBand cp_Class = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_Class", UDELTA5, CONSTANT_Utf8);
    CPRefBand cp_Signature_form = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_Signature_form", CONSTANT_Utf8);
    CPRefBand cp_Signature_classes = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_Signature_classes", UDELTA5, CONSTANT_Class);
    CPRefBand cp_Descr_name = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_Descr_name", CONSTANT_Utf8);
    CPRefBand cp_Descr_type = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_Descr_type", UDELTA5, CONSTANT_Signature);
    CPRefBand cp_Field_class = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_Field_class", CONSTANT_Class);
    CPRefBand cp_Field_desc = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_Field_desc", UDELTA5, CONSTANT_NameandType);
    CPRefBand cp_Method_class = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_Method_class", CONSTANT_Class);
    CPRefBand cp_Method_desc = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_Method_desc", UDELTA5, CONSTANT_NameandType);
    CPRefBand cp_Imethod_class = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_Imethod_class", CONSTANT_Class);
    CPRefBand cp_Imethod_desc = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_Imethod_desc", UDELTA5, CONSTANT_NameandType);
    IntBand   cp_MethodHandle_refkind = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_MethodHandle_refkind", DELTA5);
    CPRefBand cp_MethodHandle_member = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_MethodHandle_member", UDELTA5, CONSTANT_AnyMember);
    CPRefBand cp_MethodType = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_MethodType", UDELTA5, CONSTANT_Signature);
    CPRefBand cp_BootstrapMethod_ref = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_BootstrapMethod_ref", DELTA5, CONSTANT_MethodHandle);
    IntBand   cp_BootstrapMethod_arg_count = cp_bands.newIntBand("cp_BootstrapMethod_arg_count", UDELTA5);
    CPRefBand cp_BootstrapMethod_arg = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_BootstrapMethod_arg", DELTA5, CONSTANT_LoadableValue);
    CPRefBand cp_InvokeDynamic_spec = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_InvokeDynamic_spec", DELTA5, CONSTANT_BootstrapMethod);
    CPRefBand cp_InvokeDynamic_desc = cp_bands.newCPRefBand("cp_InvokeDynamic_desc", UDELTA5, CONSTANT_NameandType);

    // bands for carrying attribute definitions:
    MultiBand attr_definition_bands = all_bands.newMultiBand("(attr_definition_bands)", UNSIGNED5);
    ByteBand attr_definition_headers = attr_definition_bands.newByteBand("attr_definition_headers");
    CPRefBand attr_definition_name = attr_definition_bands.newCPRefBand("attr_definition_name", CONSTANT_Utf8);
    CPRefBand attr_definition_layout = attr_definition_bands.newCPRefBand("attr_definition_layout", CONSTANT_Utf8);

    // bands for hardwired InnerClasses attribute (shared across the package)
    MultiBand ic_bands = all_bands.newMultiBand("(ic_bands)", DELTA5);
    CPRefBand ic_this_class = ic_bands.newCPRefBand("ic_this_class", UDELTA5, CONSTANT_Class);
    IntBand ic_flags = ic_bands.newIntBand("ic_flags", UNSIGNED5);
    // These bands contain data only where flags sets ACC_IC_LONG_FORM:
    CPRefBand ic_outer_class = ic_bands.newCPRefBand("ic_outer_class", DELTA5, CONSTANT_Class, NULL_IS_OK);
    CPRefBand ic_name = ic_bands.newCPRefBand("ic_name", DELTA5, CONSTANT_Utf8, NULL_IS_OK);

    // bands for carrying class schema information:
    MultiBand class_bands = all_bands.newMultiBand("(class_bands)", DELTA5);
    CPRefBand class_this = class_bands.newCPRefBand("class_this", CONSTANT_Class);
    CPRefBand class_super = class_bands.newCPRefBand("class_super", CONSTANT_Class);
    IntBand   class_interface_count = class_bands.newIntBand("class_interface_count");
    CPRefBand class_interface = class_bands.newCPRefBand("class_interface", CONSTANT_Class);

    // bands for class members
    IntBand   class_field_count = class_bands.newIntBand("class_field_count");
    IntBand   class_method_count = class_bands.newIntBand("class_method_count");

    CPRefBand field_descr = class_bands.newCPRefBand("field_descr", CONSTANT_NameandType);
    MultiBand field_attr_bands = class_bands.newMultiBand("(field_attr_bands)", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand field_flags_hi = field_attr_bands.newIntBand("field_flags_hi");
    IntBand field_flags_lo = field_attr_bands.newIntBand("field_flags_lo");
    IntBand field_attr_count = field_attr_bands.newIntBand("field_attr_count");
    IntBand field_attr_indexes = field_attr_bands.newIntBand("field_attr_indexes");
    IntBand field_attr_calls = field_attr_bands.newIntBand("field_attr_calls");

    // bands for predefined field attributes
    CPRefBand field_ConstantValue_KQ = field_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("field_ConstantValue_KQ", CONSTANT_FieldSpecific);
    CPRefBand field_Signature_RS = field_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("field_Signature_RS", CONSTANT_Signature);
    MultiBand field_metadata_bands = field_attr_bands.newMultiBand("(field_metadata_bands)", UNSIGNED5);
    MultiBand field_type_metadata_bands = field_attr_bands.newMultiBand("(field_type_metadata_bands)", UNSIGNED5);

    CPRefBand method_descr = class_bands.newCPRefBand("method_descr", MDELTA5, CONSTANT_NameandType);
    MultiBand method_attr_bands = class_bands.newMultiBand("(method_attr_bands)", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand  method_flags_hi = method_attr_bands.newIntBand("method_flags_hi");
    IntBand  method_flags_lo = method_attr_bands.newIntBand("method_flags_lo");
    IntBand  method_attr_count = method_attr_bands.newIntBand("method_attr_count");
    IntBand  method_attr_indexes = method_attr_bands.newIntBand("method_attr_indexes");
    IntBand  method_attr_calls = method_attr_bands.newIntBand("method_attr_calls");
    // band for predefined method attributes
    IntBand  method_Exceptions_N = method_attr_bands.newIntBand("method_Exceptions_N");
    CPRefBand method_Exceptions_RC = method_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("method_Exceptions_RC", CONSTANT_Class);
    CPRefBand method_Signature_RS = method_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("method_Signature_RS", CONSTANT_Signature);
    MultiBand method_metadata_bands = method_attr_bands.newMultiBand("(method_metadata_bands)", UNSIGNED5);
    // band for predefine method parameters
    IntBand  method_MethodParameters_NB = method_attr_bands.newIntBand("method_MethodParameters_NB", BYTE1);
    CPRefBand method_MethodParameters_name_RUN = method_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("method_MethodParameters_name_RUN", UNSIGNED5, CONSTANT_Utf8, NULL_IS_OK);
    IntBand   method_MethodParameters_flag_FH = method_attr_bands.newIntBand("method_MethodParameters_flag_FH");
    MultiBand method_type_metadata_bands = method_attr_bands.newMultiBand("(method_type_metadata_bands)", UNSIGNED5);

    MultiBand class_attr_bands = class_bands.newMultiBand("(class_attr_bands)", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand class_flags_hi = class_attr_bands.newIntBand("class_flags_hi");
    IntBand class_flags_lo = class_attr_bands.newIntBand("class_flags_lo");
    IntBand class_attr_count = class_attr_bands.newIntBand("class_attr_count");
    IntBand class_attr_indexes = class_attr_bands.newIntBand("class_attr_indexes");
    IntBand class_attr_calls = class_attr_bands.newIntBand("class_attr_calls");
    // band for predefined SourceFile and other class attributes
    CPRefBand class_SourceFile_RUN = class_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("class_SourceFile_RUN", UNSIGNED5, CONSTANT_Utf8, NULL_IS_OK);
    CPRefBand class_EnclosingMethod_RC = class_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("class_EnclosingMethod_RC", CONSTANT_Class);
    CPRefBand class_EnclosingMethod_RDN = class_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("class_EnclosingMethod_RDN", UNSIGNED5, CONSTANT_NameandType, NULL_IS_OK);
    CPRefBand class_Signature_RS = class_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("class_Signature_RS", CONSTANT_Signature);
    MultiBand class_metadata_bands = class_attr_bands.newMultiBand("(class_metadata_bands)", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand   class_InnerClasses_N = class_attr_bands.newIntBand("class_InnerClasses_N");
    CPRefBand class_InnerClasses_RC = class_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("class_InnerClasses_RC", CONSTANT_Class);
    IntBand   class_InnerClasses_F = class_attr_bands.newIntBand("class_InnerClasses_F");
    CPRefBand class_InnerClasses_outer_RCN = class_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("class_InnerClasses_outer_RCN", UNSIGNED5, CONSTANT_Class, NULL_IS_OK);
    CPRefBand class_InnerClasses_name_RUN = class_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("class_InnerClasses_name_RUN", UNSIGNED5, CONSTANT_Utf8, NULL_IS_OK);
    IntBand class_ClassFile_version_minor_H = class_attr_bands.newIntBand("class_ClassFile_version_minor_H");
    IntBand class_ClassFile_version_major_H = class_attr_bands.newIntBand("class_ClassFile_version_major_H");
    MultiBand class_type_metadata_bands = class_attr_bands.newMultiBand("(class_type_metadata_bands)", UNSIGNED5);

    MultiBand code_bands = class_bands.newMultiBand("(code_bands)", UNSIGNED5);
    ByteBand  code_headers = code_bands.newByteBand("code_headers"); //BYTE1
    IntBand   code_max_stack = code_bands.newIntBand("code_max_stack", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand   code_max_na_locals = code_bands.newIntBand("code_max_na_locals", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand   code_handler_count = code_bands.newIntBand("code_handler_count", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand   code_handler_start_P = code_bands.newIntBand("code_handler_start_P", BCI5);
    IntBand   code_handler_end_PO = code_bands.newIntBand("code_handler_end_PO", BRANCH5);
    IntBand   code_handler_catch_PO = code_bands.newIntBand("code_handler_catch_PO", BRANCH5);
    CPRefBand code_handler_class_RCN = code_bands.newCPRefBand("code_handler_class_RCN", UNSIGNED5, CONSTANT_Class, NULL_IS_OK);

    MultiBand code_attr_bands = class_bands.newMultiBand("(code_attr_bands)", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand   code_flags_hi = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_flags_hi");
    IntBand   code_flags_lo = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_flags_lo");
    IntBand   code_attr_count = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_attr_count");
    IntBand   code_attr_indexes = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_attr_indexes");
    IntBand   code_attr_calls = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_attr_calls");

    MultiBand stackmap_bands = code_attr_bands.newMultiBand("(StackMapTable_bands)", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand   code_StackMapTable_N = stackmap_bands.newIntBand("code_StackMapTable_N");
    IntBand   code_StackMapTable_frame_T = stackmap_bands.newIntBand("code_StackMapTable_frame_T",BYTE1);
    IntBand   code_StackMapTable_local_N = stackmap_bands.newIntBand("code_StackMapTable_local_N");
    IntBand   code_StackMapTable_stack_N = stackmap_bands.newIntBand("code_StackMapTable_stack_N");
    IntBand   code_StackMapTable_offset = stackmap_bands.newIntBand("code_StackMapTable_offset", UNSIGNED5);
    IntBand   code_StackMapTable_T = stackmap_bands.newIntBand("code_StackMapTable_T", BYTE1);
    CPRefBand code_StackMapTable_RC = stackmap_bands.newCPRefBand("code_StackMapTable_RC", CONSTANT_Class);
    IntBand   code_StackMapTable_P = stackmap_bands.newIntBand("code_StackMapTable_P", BCI5);

    // bands for predefined LineNumberTable attribute
    IntBand   code_LineNumberTable_N = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_LineNumberTable_N");
    IntBand   code_LineNumberTable_bci_P = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_LineNumberTable_bci_P", BCI5);
    IntBand   code_LineNumberTable_line = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_LineNumberTable_line");

    // bands for predefined LocalVariable{Type}Table attributes
    IntBand   code_LocalVariableTable_N = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_LocalVariableTable_N");
    IntBand   code_LocalVariableTable_bci_P = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_LocalVariableTable_bci_P", BCI5);
    IntBand   code_LocalVariableTable_span_O = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_LocalVariableTable_span_O", BRANCH5);
    CPRefBand code_LocalVariableTable_name_RU = code_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("code_LocalVariableTable_name_RU", CONSTANT_Utf8);
    CPRefBand code_LocalVariableTable_type_RS = code_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("code_LocalVariableTable_type_RS", CONSTANT_Signature);
    IntBand   code_LocalVariableTable_slot = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_LocalVariableTable_slot");
    IntBand   code_LocalVariableTypeTable_N = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_LocalVariableTypeTable_N");
    IntBand   code_LocalVariableTypeTable_bci_P = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_LocalVariableTypeTable_bci_P", BCI5);
    IntBand   code_LocalVariableTypeTable_span_O = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_LocalVariableTypeTable_span_O", BRANCH5);
    CPRefBand code_LocalVariableTypeTable_name_RU = code_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("code_LocalVariableTypeTable_name_RU", CONSTANT_Utf8);
    CPRefBand code_LocalVariableTypeTable_type_RS = code_attr_bands.newCPRefBand("code_LocalVariableTypeTable_type_RS", CONSTANT_Signature);
    IntBand   code_LocalVariableTypeTable_slot = code_attr_bands.newIntBand("code_LocalVariableTypeTable_slot");
    MultiBand code_type_metadata_bands = code_attr_bands.newMultiBand("(code_type_metadata_bands)", UNSIGNED5);

    // bands for bytecodes
    MultiBand bc_bands = all_bands.newMultiBand("(byte_codes)", UNSIGNED5);
    ByteBand  bc_codes = bc_bands.newByteBand("bc_codes"); //BYTE1
    // remaining bands provide typed opcode fields required by the bc_codes

    IntBand   bc_case_count = bc_bands.newIntBand("bc_case_count");  // *switch
    IntBand   bc_case_value = bc_bands.newIntBand("bc_case_value", DELTA5);  // *switch
    ByteBand  bc_byte = bc_bands.newByteBand("bc_byte"); //BYTE1   // bipush, iinc, *newarray
    IntBand   bc_short = bc_bands.newIntBand("bc_short", DELTA5);  // sipush, wide iinc
    IntBand   bc_local = bc_bands.newIntBand("bc_local");    // *load, *store, iinc, ret
    IntBand   bc_label = bc_bands.newIntBand("bc_label", BRANCH5);    // if*, goto*, jsr*, *switch

    // Most CP refs exhibit some correlation, and benefit from delta coding.
    // The notable exceptions are class and method references.

    // ldc* operands:
    CPRefBand bc_intref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_intref", DELTA5, CONSTANT_Integer);
    CPRefBand bc_floatref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_floatref", DELTA5, CONSTANT_Float);
    CPRefBand bc_longref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_longref", DELTA5, CONSTANT_Long);
    CPRefBand bc_doubleref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_doubleref", DELTA5, CONSTANT_Double);
    CPRefBand bc_stringref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_stringref", DELTA5, CONSTANT_String);
    CPRefBand bc_loadablevalueref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_loadablevalueref", DELTA5, CONSTANT_LoadableValue);

    // nulls produced by bc_classref are taken to mean the current class
    CPRefBand bc_classref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_classref", UNSIGNED5, CONSTANT_Class, NULL_IS_OK);   // new, *anew*, c*cast, i*of, ldc
    CPRefBand bc_fieldref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_fieldref", DELTA5, CONSTANT_Fieldref);   // get*, put*
    CPRefBand bc_methodref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_methodref", CONSTANT_Methodref); // invoke[vs]*
    CPRefBand bc_imethodref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_imethodref", DELTA5, CONSTANT_InterfaceMethodref); // invokeinterface
    CPRefBand bc_indyref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_indyref", DELTA5, CONSTANT_InvokeDynamic); // invokedynamic

    // _self_linker_op family
    CPRefBand bc_thisfield = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_thisfield", CONSTANT_None);     // any field within cur. class
    CPRefBand bc_superfield = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_superfield", CONSTANT_None);   // any field within superclass
    CPRefBand bc_thismethod = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_thismethod", CONSTANT_None);   // any method within cur. class
    CPRefBand bc_supermethod = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_supermethod", CONSTANT_None); // any method within superclass
    // bc_invokeinit family:
    IntBand   bc_initref = bc_bands.newIntBand("bc_initref");
    // escapes
    CPRefBand bc_escref = bc_bands.newCPRefBand("bc_escref", CONSTANT_All);
    IntBand   bc_escrefsize = bc_bands.newIntBand("bc_escrefsize");
    IntBand   bc_escsize = bc_bands.newIntBand("bc_escsize");
    ByteBand  bc_escbyte = bc_bands.newByteBand("bc_escbyte");

    // bands for carrying resource files and file attributes:
    MultiBand file_bands = all_bands.newMultiBand("(file_bands)", UNSIGNED5);
    CPRefBand file_name = file_bands.newCPRefBand("file_name", CONSTANT_Utf8);
    IntBand file_size_hi = file_bands.newIntBand("file_size_hi");
    IntBand file_size_lo = file_bands.newIntBand("file_size_lo");
    IntBand file_modtime = file_bands.newIntBand("file_modtime", DELTA5);
    IntBand file_options = file_bands.newIntBand("file_options");
    ByteBand file_bits = file_bands.newByteBand("file_bits");

    // End of band definitions!

    /** Given CP indexes, distribute tag-specific indexes to bands. */
    protected void setBandIndexes() {
        // Handle prior calls to setBandIndex:
        for (Object[] need : needPredefIndex) {
            CPRefBand b     = (CPRefBand) need[0];
            Byte      which = (Byte)      need[1];
            b.setIndex(getCPIndex(which.byteValue()));
        }
        needPredefIndex = null;  // no more predefs

        if (verbose > 3) {
            printCDecl(all_bands);
        }
    }

    protected void setBandIndex(CPRefBand b, byte which) {
        Object[] need = { b, Byte.valueOf(which) };
        if (which == CONSTANT_FieldSpecific) {
            // I.e., attribute layouts KQ (no null) or KQN (null ok).
            allKQBands.add(b);
        } else if (needPredefIndex != null) {
            needPredefIndex.add(need);
        } else {
            // Not in predefinition mode; getCPIndex now works.
            b.setIndex(getCPIndex(which));
        }
    }

    protected void setConstantValueIndex(Field f) {
        Index ix = null;
        if (f != null) {
            byte tag = f.getLiteralTag();
            ix = getCPIndex(tag);
            if (verbose > 2)
                Utils.log.fine("setConstantValueIndex "+f+" "+ConstantPool.tagName(tag)+" => "+ix);
            assert(ix != null);
        }
        // Typically, allKQBands is the singleton of field_ConstantValue_KQ.
        for (CPRefBand xxx_KQ : allKQBands) {
            xxx_KQ.setIndex(ix);
        }
    }

    // Table of bands which contain metadata.
    protected MultiBand[] metadataBands = new MultiBand[ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT];
    {
        metadataBands[ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS] = class_metadata_bands;
        metadataBands[ATTR_CONTEXT_FIELD] = field_metadata_bands;
        metadataBands[ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD] = method_metadata_bands;
    }
    // Table of bands which contains type_metadata (TypeAnnotations)
    protected MultiBand[] typeMetadataBands = new MultiBand[ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT];
    {
        typeMetadataBands[ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS] = class_type_metadata_bands;
        typeMetadataBands[ATTR_CONTEXT_FIELD] = field_type_metadata_bands;
        typeMetadataBands[ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD] = method_type_metadata_bands;
        typeMetadataBands[ATTR_CONTEXT_CODE]   = code_type_metadata_bands;
    }

    // Attribute layouts.
    public static final int ADH_CONTEXT_MASK   = 0x3;  // (ad_hdr & ADH_CONTEXT_MASK)
    public static final int ADH_BIT_SHIFT      = 0x2;  // (ad_hdr >> ADH_BIT_SHIFT)
    public static final int ADH_BIT_IS_LSB     = 1;
    public static final int ATTR_INDEX_OVERFLOW  = -1;

    public int[] attrIndexLimit = new int[ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT];
    // Each index limit is either 32 or 63, depending on AO_HAVE_XXX_FLAGS_HI.

    // Which flag bits are taken over by attributes?
    protected long[] attrFlagMask = new long[ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT];
    // Which flag bits have been taken over explicitly?
    protected long[] attrDefSeen = new long[ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT];

    // What pseudo-attribute bits are there to watch for?
    protected int[] attrOverflowMask = new int[ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT];
    protected int attrClassFileVersionMask;

    // Mapping from Attribute.Layout to Band[] (layout element bands).
    protected Map<Attribute.Layout, Band[]> attrBandTable = new HashMap<>();

    // Well-known attributes:
    protected final Attribute.Layout attrCodeEmpty;
    protected final Attribute.Layout attrInnerClassesEmpty;
    protected final Attribute.Layout attrClassFileVersion;
    protected final Attribute.Layout attrConstantValue;

    // Mapping from Attribute.Layout to Integer (inverse of attrDefs)
    Map<Attribute.Layout, Integer> attrIndexTable = new HashMap<>();

    // Mapping from attribute index (<32 are flag bits) to attributes.
    protected List<List<Attribute.Layout>> attrDefs =
            new FixedList<>(ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT);
    {
        for (int i = 0; i < ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT; i++) {
            assert(attrIndexLimit[i] == 0);
            attrIndexLimit[i] = 32;  // just for the sake of predefs.
            attrDefs.set(i, new ArrayList<>(Collections.nCopies(
                    attrIndexLimit[i], (Attribute.Layout)null)));

        }

        // Add predefined attribute definitions:
        attrInnerClassesEmpty =
        predefineAttribute(CLASS_ATTR_InnerClasses, ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS, null,
                           "InnerClasses", "");
        assert(attrInnerClassesEmpty == Package.attrInnerClassesEmpty);
        predefineAttribute(CLASS_ATTR_SourceFile, ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS,
                           new Band[] { class_SourceFile_RUN },
                           "SourceFile", "RUNH");
        predefineAttribute(CLASS_ATTR_EnclosingMethod, ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS,
                           new Band[] {
                               class_EnclosingMethod_RC,
                               class_EnclosingMethod_RDN
                           },
                           "EnclosingMethod", "RCHRDNH");
        attrClassFileVersion =
        predefineAttribute(CLASS_ATTR_ClassFile_version, ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS,
                           new Band[] {
                               class_ClassFile_version_minor_H,
                               class_ClassFile_version_major_H
                           },
                           ".ClassFile.version", "HH");
        predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_Signature, ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS,
                           new Band[] { class_Signature_RS },
                           "Signature", "RSH");
        predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_Deprecated, ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS, null,
                           "Deprecated", "");
        //predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_Synthetic, ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS, null,
        //                 "Synthetic", "");
        predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_OVERFLOW, ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS, null,
                           ".Overflow", "");
        attrConstantValue =
        predefineAttribute(FIELD_ATTR_ConstantValue, ATTR_CONTEXT_FIELD,
                           new Band[] { field_ConstantValue_KQ },
                           "ConstantValue", "KQH");
        predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_Signature, ATTR_CONTEXT_FIELD,
                           new Band[] { field_Signature_RS },
                           "Signature", "RSH");
        predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_Deprecated, ATTR_CONTEXT_FIELD, null,
                           "Deprecated", "");
        //predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_Synthetic, ATTR_CONTEXT_FIELD, null,
        //                 "Synthetic", "");
        predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_OVERFLOW, ATTR_CONTEXT_FIELD, null,
                           ".Overflow", "");
        attrCodeEmpty =
        predefineAttribute(METHOD_ATTR_Code, ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD, null,
                           "Code", "");
        predefineAttribute(METHOD_ATTR_Exceptions, ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD,
                           new Band[] {
                               method_Exceptions_N,
                               method_Exceptions_RC
                           },
                           "Exceptions", "NH[RCH]");
        predefineAttribute(METHOD_ATTR_MethodParameters, ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD,
                           new Band[]{
                                method_MethodParameters_NB,
                                method_MethodParameters_name_RUN,
                                method_MethodParameters_flag_FH
                           },
                           "MethodParameters", "NB[RUNHFH]");
        assert(attrCodeEmpty == Package.attrCodeEmpty);
        predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_Signature, ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD,
                           new Band[] { method_Signature_RS },
                           "Signature", "RSH");
        predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_Deprecated, ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD, null,
                           "Deprecated", "");
        //predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_Synthetic, ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD, null,
        //                 "Synthetic", "");
        predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_OVERFLOW, ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD, null,
                           ".Overflow", "");

        for (int ctype = 0; ctype < ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT; ctype++) {
            MultiBand xxx_metadata_bands = metadataBands[ctype];
            if (ctype != ATTR_CONTEXT_CODE) {
                // These arguments cause the bands to be built
                // automatically for this complicated layout:
                predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_RuntimeVisibleAnnotations,
                                   ATTR_CONTEXT_NAME[ctype]+"_RVA_",
                                   xxx_metadata_bands,
                                   Attribute.lookup(null, ctype,
                                                    "RuntimeVisibleAnnotations"));
                predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_RuntimeInvisibleAnnotations,
                                   ATTR_CONTEXT_NAME[ctype]+"_RIA_",
                                   xxx_metadata_bands,
                                   Attribute.lookup(null, ctype,
                                                    "RuntimeInvisibleAnnotations"));

                if (ctype == ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD) {
                    predefineAttribute(METHOD_ATTR_RuntimeVisibleParameterAnnotations,
                                       "method_RVPA_", xxx_metadata_bands,
                                       Attribute.lookup(null, ctype,
                                       "RuntimeVisibleParameterAnnotations"));
                    predefineAttribute(METHOD_ATTR_RuntimeInvisibleParameterAnnotations,
                                       "method_RIPA_", xxx_metadata_bands,
                                       Attribute.lookup(null, ctype,
                                       "RuntimeInvisibleParameterAnnotations"));
                    predefineAttribute(METHOD_ATTR_AnnotationDefault,
                                       "method_AD_", xxx_metadata_bands,
                                       Attribute.lookup(null, ctype,
                                       "AnnotationDefault"));
                }
            }
            // All contexts have these
            MultiBand xxx_type_metadata_bands = typeMetadataBands[ctype];
            predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_RuntimeVisibleTypeAnnotations,
                    ATTR_CONTEXT_NAME[ctype] + "_RVTA_",
                    xxx_type_metadata_bands,
                    Attribute.lookup(null, ctype,
                    "RuntimeVisibleTypeAnnotations"));
            predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_RuntimeInvisibleTypeAnnotations,
                    ATTR_CONTEXT_NAME[ctype] + "_RITA_",
                    xxx_type_metadata_bands,
                    Attribute.lookup(null, ctype,
                    "RuntimeInvisibleTypeAnnotations"));
        }


        Attribute.Layout stackMapDef = Attribute.lookup(null, ATTR_CONTEXT_CODE, "StackMapTable").layout();
        predefineAttribute(CODE_ATTR_StackMapTable, ATTR_CONTEXT_CODE,
                           stackmap_bands.toArray(),
                           stackMapDef.name(), stackMapDef.layout());

        predefineAttribute(CODE_ATTR_LineNumberTable, ATTR_CONTEXT_CODE,
                           new Band[] {
                               code_LineNumberTable_N,
                               code_LineNumberTable_bci_P,
                               code_LineNumberTable_line
                           },
                           "LineNumberTable", "NH[PHH]");
        predefineAttribute(CODE_ATTR_LocalVariableTable, ATTR_CONTEXT_CODE,
                           new Band[] {
                               code_LocalVariableTable_N,
                               code_LocalVariableTable_bci_P,
                               code_LocalVariableTable_span_O,
                               code_LocalVariableTable_name_RU,
                               code_LocalVariableTable_type_RS,
                               code_LocalVariableTable_slot
                           },
                           "LocalVariableTable", "NH[PHOHRUHRSHH]");
        predefineAttribute(CODE_ATTR_LocalVariableTypeTable, ATTR_CONTEXT_CODE,
                           new Band[] {
                               code_LocalVariableTypeTable_N,
                               code_LocalVariableTypeTable_bci_P,
                               code_LocalVariableTypeTable_span_O,
                               code_LocalVariableTypeTable_name_RU,
                               code_LocalVariableTypeTable_type_RS,
                               code_LocalVariableTypeTable_slot
                           },
                           "LocalVariableTypeTable", "NH[PHOHRUHRSHH]");
        predefineAttribute(X_ATTR_OVERFLOW, ATTR_CONTEXT_CODE, null,
                           ".Overflow", "");

        // Clear the record of having seen these definitions,
        // so they may be redefined without error.
        for (int i = 0; i < ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT; i++) {
            attrDefSeen[i] = 0;
        }

        // Set up the special masks:
        for (int i = 0; i < ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT; i++) {
            attrOverflowMask[i] = (1<<X_ATTR_OVERFLOW);
            attrIndexLimit[i] = 0;  // will make a final decision later
        }
        attrClassFileVersionMask = (1<<CLASS_ATTR_ClassFile_version);
    }

    private void adjustToClassVersion() throws IOException {
        if (getHighestClassVersion().lessThan(JAVA6_MAX_CLASS_VERSION)) {
            if (verbose > 0)  Utils.log.fine("Legacy package version");
            // Revoke definition of pre-1.6 attribute type.
            undefineAttribute(CODE_ATTR_StackMapTable, ATTR_CONTEXT_CODE);
        }
    }

    protected void initAttrIndexLimit() {
        for (int i = 0; i < ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT; i++) {
            assert(attrIndexLimit[i] == 0);  // decide on it now!
            attrIndexLimit[i] = (haveFlagsHi(i)? 63: 32);
            List<Attribute.Layout> defList = attrDefs.get(i);
            assert(defList.size() == 32);  // all predef indexes are <32
            int addMore = attrIndexLimit[i] - defList.size();
            defList.addAll(Collections.nCopies(addMore, (Attribute.Layout) null));
        }
    }

    protected boolean haveFlagsHi(int ctype) {
        int mask = 1<<(LG_AO_HAVE_XXX_FLAGS_HI+ctype);
        switch (ctype) {
        case ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS:
            assert(mask == AO_HAVE_CLASS_FLAGS_HI); break;
        case ATTR_CONTEXT_FIELD:
            assert(mask == AO_HAVE_FIELD_FLAGS_HI); break;
        case ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD:
            assert(mask == AO_HAVE_METHOD_FLAGS_HI); break;
        case ATTR_CONTEXT_CODE:
            assert(mask == AO_HAVE_CODE_FLAGS_HI); break;
        default:
            assert(false);
        }
        return testBit(archiveOptions, mask);
    }

    protected List<Attribute.Layout> getPredefinedAttrs(int ctype) {
        assert(attrIndexLimit[ctype] != 0);
        List<Attribute.Layout> res = new ArrayList<>(attrIndexLimit[ctype]);
        // Remove nulls and non-predefs.
        for (int ai = 0; ai < attrIndexLimit[ctype]; ai++) {
            if (testBit(attrDefSeen[ctype], 1L<<ai))  continue;
            Attribute.Layout def = attrDefs.get(ctype).get(ai);
            if (def == null)  continue;  // unused flag bit
            assert(isPredefinedAttr(ctype, ai));
            res.add(def);
        }
        return res;
    }

    protected boolean isPredefinedAttr(int ctype, int ai) {
        assert(attrIndexLimit[ctype] != 0);
        // Overflow attrs are never predefined.
        if (ai >= attrIndexLimit[ctype])          return false;
        // If the bit is set, it was explicitly def'd.
        if (testBit(attrDefSeen[ctype], 1L<<ai))  return false;
        return (attrDefs.get(ctype).get(ai) != null);
    }

    protected void adjustSpecialAttrMasks() {
        // Clear special masks if new definitions have been seen for them.
        attrClassFileVersionMask &= ~ attrDefSeen[ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS];
        // It is possible to clear the overflow mask (bit 16).
        for (int i = 0; i < ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT; i++) {
            attrOverflowMask[i] &= ~ attrDefSeen[i];
        }
    }

    protected Attribute makeClassFileVersionAttr(Package.Version ver) {
        return attrClassFileVersion.addContent(ver.asBytes());
    }

    protected Package.Version parseClassFileVersionAttr(Attribute attr) {
        assert(attr.layout() == attrClassFileVersion);
        assert(attr.size() == 4);
        return Package.Version.of(attr.bytes());
    }

    private boolean assertBandOKForElems(Band[] ab, Attribute.Layout.Element[] elems) {
        for (int i = 0; i < elems.length; i++) {
            assert(assertBandOKForElem(ab, elems[i]));
        }
        return true;
    }
    private boolean assertBandOKForElem(Band[] ab, Attribute.Layout.Element e) {
        Band b = null;
        if (e.bandIndex != Attribute.NO_BAND_INDEX)
            b = ab[e.bandIndex];
        Coding rc = UNSIGNED5;
        boolean wantIntBand = true;
        switch (e.kind) {
        case Attribute.EK_INT:
            if (e.flagTest(Attribute.EF_SIGN)) {
                rc = SIGNED5;
            } else if (e.len == 1) {
                rc = BYTE1;
            }
            break;
        case Attribute.EK_BCI:
            if (!e.flagTest(Attribute.EF_DELTA)) {
                rc = BCI5;
            } else {
                rc = BRANCH5;
            }
            break;
        case Attribute.EK_BCO:
            rc = BRANCH5;
            break;
        case Attribute.EK_FLAG:
            if (e.len == 1)  rc = BYTE1;
            break;
        case Attribute.EK_REPL:
            if (e.len == 1)  rc = BYTE1;
            assertBandOKForElems(ab, e.body);
            break;
        case Attribute.EK_UN:
            if (e.flagTest(Attribute.EF_SIGN)) {
                rc = SIGNED5;
            } else if (e.len == 1) {
                rc = BYTE1;
            }
            assertBandOKForElems(ab, e.body);
            break;
        case Attribute.EK_CASE:
            assert(b == null);
            assertBandOKForElems(ab, e.body);
            return true;  // no direct band
        case Attribute.EK_CALL:
            assert(b == null);
            return true;  // no direct band
        case Attribute.EK_CBLE:
            assert(b == null);
            assertBandOKForElems(ab, e.body);
            return true;  // no direct band
        case Attribute.EK_REF:
            wantIntBand = false;
            assert(b instanceof CPRefBand);
            assert(((CPRefBand)b).nullOK == e.flagTest(Attribute.EF_NULL));
            break;
        default: assert(false);
        }
        assert(b.regularCoding == rc)
            : (e+" // "+b);
        if (wantIntBand)
            assert(b instanceof IntBand);
        return true;
    }

    private
    Attribute.Layout predefineAttribute(int index, int ctype, Band[] ab,
                                        String name, String layout) {
        // Use Attribute.find to get uniquification of layouts.
        Attribute.Layout def = Attribute.find(ctype, name, layout).layout();
        //def.predef = true;
        if (index >= 0) {
            setAttributeLayoutIndex(def, index);
        }
        if (ab == null) {
            ab = new Band[0];
        }
        assert(attrBandTable.get(def) == null);  // no redef
        attrBandTable.put(def, ab);
        assert(def.bandCount == ab.length)
            : (def+" // "+Arrays.asList(ab));
        // Let's make sure the band types match:
        assert(assertBandOKForElems(ab, def.elems));
        return def;
    }

    // This version takes bandPrefix/addHere instead of prebuilt Band[] ab.
    private
    Attribute.Layout predefineAttribute(int index,
                                        String bandPrefix, MultiBand addHere,
                                        Attribute attr) {
        //Attribute.Layout def = Attribute.find(ctype, name, layout).layout();
        Attribute.Layout def = attr.layout();
        int ctype = def.ctype();
        return predefineAttribute(index, ctype,
                                  makeNewAttributeBands(bandPrefix, def, addHere),
                                  def.name(), def.layout());
    }

    private
    void undefineAttribute(int index, int ctype) {
        if (verbose > 1) {
            System.out.println("Removing predefined "+ATTR_CONTEXT_NAME[ctype]+
                               " attribute on bit "+index);
        }
        List<Attribute.Layout> defList = attrDefs.get(ctype);
        Attribute.Layout def = defList.get(index);
        assert(def != null);
        defList.set(index, null);
        attrIndexTable.put(def, null);
        // Clear the def bit.  (For predefs, it's already clear.)
        assert(index < 64);
        attrDefSeen[ctype]  &= ~(1L<<index);
        attrFlagMask[ctype] &= ~(1L<<index);
        Band[] ab = attrBandTable.get(def);
        for (int j = 0; j < ab.length; j++) {
            ab[j].doneWithUnusedBand();
        }
    }

    // Bands which contain non-predefined attrs.
    protected MultiBand[] attrBands = new MultiBand[ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT];
    {
        attrBands[ATTR_CONTEXT_CLASS] = class_attr_bands;
        attrBands[ATTR_CONTEXT_FIELD] = field_attr_bands;
        attrBands[ATTR_CONTEXT_METHOD] = method_attr_bands;
        attrBands[ATTR_CONTEXT_CODE] = code_attr_bands;
    }

    // Create bands for all non-predefined attrs.
    void makeNewAttributeBands() {
        // Retract special flag bit bindings, if they were taken over.
        adjustSpecialAttrMasks();

        for (int ctype = 0; ctype < ATTR_CONTEXT_LIMIT; ctype++) {
            String cname = ATTR_CONTEXT_NAME[ctype];
            MultiBand xxx_attr_bands = attrBands[ctype];
            long defSeen = attrDefSeen[ctype];
            // Note: attrDefSeen is always a subset of attrFlagMask.
            assert((defSeen & ~attrFlagMask[ctype]) == 0);
            for (int i = 0; i < attrDefs.get(ctype).size(); i++) {
                Attribute.Layout def = attrDefs.get(ctype).get(i);
                if (def == null)  continue;  // unused flag bit
                if (def.bandCount == 0)  continue;  // empty attr
                if (i < attrIndexLimit[ctype] && !testBit(defSeen, 1L<<i)) {
                    // There are already predefined bands here.
                    assert(attrBandTable.get(def) != null);
                    continue;
                }
                int base = xxx_attr_bands.size();
                String pfx = cname+"_"+def.name()+"_";  // debug only
                if (verbose > 1)
                    Utils.log.fine("Making new bands for "+def);
                Band[] newAB  = makeNewAttributeBands(pfx, def,
                                                      xxx_attr_bands);
                assert(newAB.length == def.bandCount);
                Band[] prevAB = attrBandTable.put(def, newAB);
                if (prevAB != null) {
                    // We won't be using these predefined bands.
                    for (int j = 0; j < prevAB.length; j++) {
                        prevAB[j].doneWithUnusedBand();
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        //System.out.println(prevForAssertMap);
    }
    private
    Band[] makeNewAttributeBands(String pfx, Attribute.Layout def,
                                 MultiBand addHere) {
        int base = addHere.size();
        makeNewAttributeBands(pfx, def.elems, addHere);
        int nb = addHere.size() - base;
        Band[] newAB = new Band[nb];
        for (int i = 0; i < nb; i++) {
            newAB[i] = addHere.get(base+i);
        }
        return newAB;
    }
    // Recursive helper, operates on a "body" or other sequence of elems:
    private
    void makeNewAttributeBands(String pfx, Attribute.Layout.Element[] elems,
                               MultiBand ab) {
        for (int i = 0; i < elems.length; i++) {
            Attribute.Layout.Element e = elems[i];
            String name = pfx+ab.size()+"_"+e.layout;
            {
                int tem;
                if ((tem = name.indexOf('[')) > 0)
                    name = name.substring(0, tem);
                if ((tem = name.indexOf('(')) > 0)
                    name = name.substring(0, tem);
                if (name.endsWith("H"))
                    name = name.substring(0, name.length()-1);
            }
            Band nb;
            switch (e.kind) {
            case Attribute.EK_INT:
                nb = newElemBand(e, name, ab);
                break;
            case Attribute.EK_BCI:
                if (!e.flagTest(Attribute.EF_DELTA)) {
                    // PH:  transmit R(bci), store bci
                    nb = ab.newIntBand(name, BCI5);
                } else {
                    // POH:  transmit D(R(bci)), store bci
                    nb = ab.newIntBand(name, BRANCH5);
                }
                // Note:  No case for BYTE1 here.
                break;
            case Attribute.EK_BCO:
                // OH:  transmit D(R(bci)), store D(bci)
                nb = ab.newIntBand(name, BRANCH5);
                // Note:  No case for BYTE1 here.
                break;
            case Attribute.EK_FLAG:
                assert(!e.flagTest(Attribute.EF_SIGN));
                nb = newElemBand(e, name, ab);
                break;
            case Attribute.EK_REPL:
                assert(!e.flagTest(Attribute.EF_SIGN));
                nb = newElemBand(e, name, ab);
                makeNewAttributeBands(pfx, e.body, ab);
                break;
            case Attribute.EK_UN:
                nb = newElemBand(e, name, ab);
                makeNewAttributeBands(pfx, e.body, ab);
                break;
            case Attribute.EK_CASE:
                if (!e.flagTest(Attribute.EF_BACK)) {
                    // If it's not a duplicate body, make the bands.
                    makeNewAttributeBands(pfx, e.body, ab);
                }
                continue;  // no new band to make
            case Attribute.EK_REF:
                byte    refKind = e.refKind;
                boolean nullOK  = e.flagTest(Attribute.EF_NULL);
                nb = ab.newCPRefBand(name, UNSIGNED5, refKind, nullOK);
                // Note:  No case for BYTE1 here.
                break;
            case Attribute.EK_CALL:
                continue;  // no new band to make
            case Attribute.EK_CBLE:
                makeNewAttributeBands(pfx, e.body, ab);
                continue;  // no new band to make
            default: assert(false); continue;
            }
            if (verbose > 1) {
                Utils.log.fine("New attribute band "+nb);
            }
        }
    }
    private
    Band newElemBand(Attribute.Layout.Element e, String name, MultiBand ab) {
        if (e.flagTest(Attribute.EF_SIGN)) {
            return ab.newIntBand(name, SIGNED5);
        } else if (e.len == 1) {
            return ab.newIntBand(name, BYTE1);  // Not ByteBand, please.
        } else {
            return ab.newIntBand(name, UNSIGNED5);
        }
    }

    protected int setAttributeLayoutIndex(Attribute.Layout def, int index) {
        int ctype = def.ctype;
        assert(ATTR_INDEX_OVERFLOW <= index && index < attrIndexLimit[ctype]);
        List<Attribute.Layout> defList = attrDefs.get(ctype);
        if (index == ATTR_INDEX_OVERFLOW) {
            // Overflow attribute.
            index = defList.size();
            defList.add(def);
            if (verbose > 0)
                Utils.log.info("Adding new attribute at "+def +": "+index);
            attrIndexTable.put(def, index);
            return index;
        }

        // Detect redefinitions:
        if (testBit(attrDefSeen[ctype], 1L<<index)) {
            throw new RuntimeException("Multiple explicit definition at "+index+": "+def);
        }
        attrDefSeen[ctype] |= (1L<<index);

        // Adding a new fixed attribute.
        assert(0 <= index && index < attrIndexLimit[ctype]);
        if (verbose > (attrClassFileVersionMask == 0? 2:0))
            Utils.log.fine("Fixing new attribute at "+index
                               +": "+def
                               +(defList.get(index) == null? "":
                                 "; replacing "+defList.get(index)));
        attrFlagMask[ctype] |= (1L<<index);
        // Remove index binding of any previous fixed attr.
        attrIndexTable.put(defList.get(index), null);
        defList.set(index, def);
        attrIndexTable.put(def, index);
        return index;
    }

    // encodings found in the code_headers band
    private static final int[][] shortCodeLimits = {
        { 12, 12 }, // s<12, l<12, e=0 [1..144]
        {  8,  8 }, //  s<8,  l<8, e=1 [145..208]
        {  7,  7 }, //  s<7,  l<7, e=2 [209..256]
    };
    public final int shortCodeHeader_h_limit = shortCodeLimits.length;

    // return 0 if it won't encode, else a number in [1..255]
    static int shortCodeHeader(Code code) {
        int s = code.max_stack;
        int l0 = code.max_locals;
        int h = code.handler_class.length;
        if (h >= shortCodeLimits.length)  return LONG_CODE_HEADER;
        int siglen = code.getMethod().getArgumentSize();
        assert(l0 >= siglen);  // enough locals for signature!
        if (l0 < siglen)  return LONG_CODE_HEADER;
        int l1 = l0 - siglen;  // do not count locals required by the signature
        int lims = shortCodeLimits[h][0];
        int liml = shortCodeLimits[h][1];
        if (s >= lims || l1 >= liml)  return LONG_CODE_HEADER;
        int sc = shortCodeHeader_h_base(h);
        sc += s + lims*l1;
        if (sc > 255)  return LONG_CODE_HEADER;
        assert(shortCodeHeader_max_stack(sc) == s);
        assert(shortCodeHeader_max_na_locals(sc) == l1);
        assert(shortCodeHeader_handler_count(sc) == h);
        return sc;
    }

    static final int LONG_CODE_HEADER = 0;
    static int shortCodeHeader_handler_count(int sc) {
        assert(sc > 0 && sc <= 255);
        for (int h = 0; ; h++) {
            if (sc < shortCodeHeader_h_base(h+1))
                return h;
        }
    }
    static int shortCodeHeader_max_stack(int sc) {
        int h = shortCodeHeader_handler_count(sc);
        int lims = shortCodeLimits[h][0];
        return (sc - shortCodeHeader_h_base(h)) % lims;
    }
    static int shortCodeHeader_max_na_locals(int sc) {
        int h = shortCodeHeader_handler_count(sc);
        int lims = shortCodeLimits[h][0];
        return (sc - shortCodeHeader_h_base(h)) / lims;
    }

    private static int shortCodeHeader_h_base(int h) {
        assert(h <= shortCodeLimits.length);
        int sc = 1;
        for (int h0 = 0; h0 < h; h0++) {
            int lims = shortCodeLimits[h0][0];
            int liml = shortCodeLimits[h0][1];
            sc += lims * liml;
        }
        return sc;
    }

    // utilities for accessing the bc_label band:
    protected void putLabel(IntBand bc_label, Code c, int pc, int targetPC) {
        bc_label.putInt(c.encodeBCI(targetPC) - c.encodeBCI(pc));
    }
    protected int getLabel(IntBand bc_label, Code c, int pc) {
        return c.decodeBCI(bc_label.getInt() + c.encodeBCI(pc));
    }

    protected CPRefBand getCPRefOpBand(int bc) {
        switch (Instruction.getCPRefOpTag(bc)) {
        case CONSTANT_Class:
            return bc_classref;
        case CONSTANT_Fieldref:
            return bc_fieldref;
        case CONSTANT_Methodref:
            return bc_methodref;
        case CONSTANT_InterfaceMethodref:
            return bc_imethodref;
        case CONSTANT_InvokeDynamic:
            return bc_indyref;
        case CONSTANT_LoadableValue:
            switch (bc) {
            case _ildc: case _ildc_w:
                return bc_intref;
            case _fldc: case _fldc_w:
                return bc_floatref;
            case _lldc2_w:
                return bc_longref;
            case _dldc2_w:
                return bc_doubleref;
            case _sldc: case _sldc_w:
                return bc_stringref;
            case _cldc: case _cldc_w:
                return bc_classref;
            case _qldc: case _qldc_w:
                return bc_loadablevalueref;
            }
            break;
        }
        assert(false);
        return null;
    }

    protected CPRefBand selfOpRefBand(int self_bc) {
        assert(Instruction.isSelfLinkerOp(self_bc));
        int idx = (self_bc - _self_linker_op);
        boolean isSuper = (idx >= _self_linker_super_flag);
        if (isSuper)  idx -= _self_linker_super_flag;
        boolean isAload = (idx >= _self_linker_aload_flag);
        if (isAload)  idx -= _self_linker_aload_flag;
        int origBC = _first_linker_op + idx;
        boolean isField = Instruction.isFieldOp(origBC);
        if (!isSuper)
            return isField? bc_thisfield: bc_thismethod;
        else
            return isField? bc_superfield: bc_supermethod;
    }

    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    static int nextSeqForDebug;
    static File dumpDir = null;
    static OutputStream getDumpStream(Band b, String ext) throws IOException {
        return getDumpStream(b.name, b.seqForDebug, ext, b);
    }
    static OutputStream getDumpStream(Index ix, String ext) throws IOException {
        if (ix.size() == 0)  return new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        int seq = ConstantPool.TAG_ORDER[ix.cpMap[0].tag];
        return getDumpStream(ix.debugName, seq, ext, ix);
    }
    static OutputStream getDumpStream(String name, int seq, String ext, Object b) throws IOException {
        if (dumpDir == null) {
            dumpDir = File.createTempFile("BD_", "", new File("."));
            dumpDir.delete();
            if (dumpDir.mkdir())
                Utils.log.info("Dumping bands to "+dumpDir);
        }
        name = name.replace('(', ' ').replace(')', ' ');
        name = name.replace('/', ' ');
        name = name.replace('*', ' ');
        name = name.trim().replace(' ','_');
        name = ((10000+seq) + "_" + name).substring(1);
        File dumpFile = new File(dumpDir, name+ext);
        Utils.log.info("Dumping "+b+" to "+dumpFile);
        return new BufferedOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(dumpFile));
    }

    // DEBUG ONLY:  Validate me at each length change.
    static boolean assertCanChangeLength(Band b) {
        switch (b.phase) {
        case COLLECT_PHASE:
        case READ_PHASE:
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    // DEBUG ONLY:  Validate a phase.
    static boolean assertPhase(Band b, int phaseExpected) {
        if (b.phase() != phaseExpected) {
            Utils.log.warning("phase expected "+phaseExpected+" was "+b.phase()+" in "+b);
            return false;
        }
        return true;
    }


    // DEBUG ONLY:  Tells whether verbosity is turned on.
    static int verbose() {
        return Utils.currentPropMap().getInteger(Utils.DEBUG_VERBOSE);
    }


    // DEBUG ONLY:  Validate me at each phase change.
    static boolean assertPhaseChangeOK(Band b, int p0, int p1) {
        switch (p0*10+p1) {
        /// Writing phases:
        case NO_PHASE*10+COLLECT_PHASE:
            // Ready to collect data from the input classes.
            assert(!b.isReader());
            assert(b.capacity() >= 0);
            assert(b.length() == 0);
            return true;
        case COLLECT_PHASE*10+FROZEN_PHASE:
        case FROZEN_PHASE*10+FROZEN_PHASE:
            assert(b.length() == 0);
            return true;
        case COLLECT_PHASE*10+WRITE_PHASE:
        case FROZEN_PHASE*10+WRITE_PHASE:
            // Data is all collected.  Ready to write bytes to disk.
            return true;
        case WRITE_PHASE*10+DONE_PHASE:
            // Done writing to disk.  Ready to reset, in principle.
            return true;

        /// Reading phases:
        case NO_PHASE*10+EXPECT_PHASE:
            assert(b.isReader());
            assert(b.capacity() < 0);
            return true;
        case EXPECT_PHASE*10+READ_PHASE:
            // Ready to read values from disk.
            assert(Math.max(0,b.capacity()) >= b.valuesExpected());
            assert(b.length() <= 0);
            return true;
        case READ_PHASE*10+DISBURSE_PHASE:
            // Ready to disburse values.
            assert(b.valuesRemainingForDebug() == b.length());
            return true;
        case DISBURSE_PHASE*10+DONE_PHASE:
            // Done disbursing values.  Ready to reset, in principle.
            assert(assertDoneDisbursing(b));
            return true;
        }
        if (p0 == p1)
            Utils.log.warning("Already in phase "+p0);
        else
            Utils.log.warning("Unexpected phase "+p0+" -> "+p1);
        return false;
    }

    private static boolean assertDoneDisbursing(Band b) {
        if (b.phase != DISBURSE_PHASE) {
            Utils.log.warning("assertDoneDisbursing: still in phase "+b.phase+": "+b);
            if (verbose() <= 1)  return false;  // fail now
        }
        int left = b.valuesRemainingForDebug();
        if (left > 0) {
            Utils.log.warning("assertDoneDisbursing: "+left+" values left in "+b);
            if (verbose() <= 1)  return false;  // fail now
        }
        if (b instanceof MultiBand) {
            MultiBand mb = (MultiBand) b;
            for (int i = 0; i < mb.bandCount; i++) {
                Band sub = mb.bands[i];
                if (sub.phase != DONE_PHASE) {
                    Utils.log.warning("assertDoneDisbursing: sub-band still in phase "+sub.phase+": "+sub);
                    if (verbose() <= 1)  return false;  // fail now
                }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private static void printCDecl(Band b) {
        if (b instanceof MultiBand) {
            MultiBand mb = (MultiBand) b;
            for (int i = 0; i < mb.bandCount; i++) {
                printCDecl(mb.bands[i]);
            }
            return;
        }
        String ixS = "NULL";
        if (b instanceof CPRefBand) {
            Index ix = ((CPRefBand)b).index;
            if (ix != null)  ixS = "INDEX("+ix.debugName+")";
        }
        Coding[] knownc = { BYTE1, CHAR3, BCI5, BRANCH5, UNSIGNED5,
                            UDELTA5, SIGNED5, DELTA5, MDELTA5 };
        String[] knowns = { "BYTE1", "CHAR3", "BCI5", "BRANCH5", "UNSIGNED5",
                            "UDELTA5", "SIGNED5", "DELTA5", "MDELTA5" };
        Coding rc = b.regularCoding;
        int rci = Arrays.asList(knownc).indexOf(rc);
        String cstr;
        if (rci >= 0)
            cstr = knowns[rci];
        else
            cstr = "CODING"+rc.keyString();
        System.out.println("  BAND_INIT(\""+b.name()+"\""
                           +", "+cstr+", "+ixS+"),");
    }

    private Map<Band, Band> prevForAssertMap;

    // DEBUG ONLY:  Record something about the band order.
    boolean notePrevForAssert(Band b, Band p) {
        if (prevForAssertMap == null)
            prevForAssertMap = new HashMap<>();
        prevForAssertMap.put(b, p);
        return true;
    }

    // DEBUG ONLY:  Validate next input band, ensure bands are read in sequence
    private boolean assertReadyToReadFrom(Band b, InputStream in) throws IOException {
        Band p = prevForAssertMap.get(b);
        // Any previous band must be done reading before this one starts.
        if (p != null && phaseCmp(p.phase(), DISBURSE_PHASE) < 0) {
            Utils.log.warning("Previous band not done reading.");
            Utils.log.info("    Previous band: "+p);
            Utils.log.info("        Next band: "+b);
            assert(verbose > 0);  // die unless verbose is true
        }
        String name = b.name;
        if (optDebugBands && !name.startsWith("(")) {
            assert(bandSequenceList != null);
            // Verify synchronization between reader & writer:
            String inName = bandSequenceList.removeFirst();
            // System.out.println("Reading: " + name);
            if (!inName.equals(name)) {
                Utils.log.warning("Expected " + name + " but read: " + inName);
                return false;
            }
            Utils.log.info("Read band in sequence: " + name);
        }
        return true;
    }

    // DEBUG ONLY:  Make sure a bunch of cprefs are correct.
    private boolean assertValidCPRefs(CPRefBand b) {
        if (b.index == null)  return true;
        int limit = b.index.size()+1;
        for (int i = 0; i < b.length(); i++) {
            int v = b.valueAtForDebug(i);
            if (v < 0 || v >= limit) {
                Utils.log.warning("CP ref out of range "+
                                   "["+i+"] = "+v+" in "+b);
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /*
     * DEBUG ONLY:  write the bands to a list and read back the list in order,
     * this works perfectly if we use the java packer and unpacker, typically
     * this will work with --repack or if they are in the same jvm instance.
     */
    static LinkedList<String> bandSequenceList = null;
    private boolean assertReadyToWriteTo(Band b, OutputStream out) throws IOException {
        Band p = prevForAssertMap.get(b);
        // Any previous band must be done writing before this one starts.
        if (p != null && phaseCmp(p.phase(), DONE_PHASE) < 0) {
            Utils.log.warning("Previous band not done writing.");
            Utils.log.info("    Previous band: "+p);
            Utils.log.info("        Next band: "+b);
            assert(verbose > 0);  // die unless verbose is true
        }
        String name = b.name;
        if (optDebugBands && !name.startsWith("(")) {
            if (bandSequenceList == null)
                bandSequenceList = new LinkedList<>();
            // Verify synchronization between reader & writer:
            bandSequenceList.add(name);
            // System.out.println("Writing: " + b);
        }
        return true;
    }

    protected static boolean testBit(int flags, int bitMask) {
        return (flags & bitMask) != 0;
    }
    protected static int setBit(int flags, int bitMask, boolean z) {
        return z ? (flags | bitMask) : (flags &~ bitMask);
    }
    protected static boolean testBit(long flags, long bitMask) {
        return (flags & bitMask) != 0;
    }
    protected static long setBit(long flags, long bitMask, boolean z) {
        return z ? (flags | bitMask) : (flags &~ bitMask);
    }


    static void printArrayTo(PrintStream ps, int[] values, int start, int end) {
        int len = end-start;
        for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
            if (i % 10 == 0)
                ps.println();
            else
                ps.print(" ");
            ps.print(values[start+i]);
        }
        ps.println();
    }

    static void printArrayTo(PrintStream ps, Entry[] cpMap, int start, int end) {
        printArrayTo(ps, cpMap, start, end, false);
    }
    static void printArrayTo(PrintStream ps, Entry[] cpMap, int start, int end, boolean showTags) {
        StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer();
        int len = end-start;
        for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
            Entry e = cpMap[start+i];
            ps.print(start+i); ps.print("=");
            if (showTags) { ps.print(e.tag); ps.print(":"); }
            String s = e.stringValue();
            buf.setLength(0);
            for (int j = 0; j < s.length(); j++) {
                char ch = s.charAt(j);
                if (!(ch < ' ' || ch > '~' || ch == '\\')) {
                    buf.append(ch);
                } else if (ch == '\\') {
                    buf.append("\\\\");
                } else if (ch == '\n') {
                    buf.append("\\n");
                } else if (ch == '\t') {
                    buf.append("\\t");
                } else if (ch == '\r') {
                    buf.append("\\r");
                } else {
                    String str = "000"+Integer.toHexString(ch);
                    buf.append("\\u").append(str.substring(str.length()-4));
                }
            }
            ps.println(buf);
        }
    }


    // Utilities for reallocating:
    protected static Object[] realloc(Object[] a, int len) {
        java.lang.Class<?> elt = a.getClass().getComponentType();
        Object[] na = (Object[]) java.lang.reflect.Array.newInstance(elt, len);
        System.arraycopy(a, 0, na, 0, Math.min(a.length, len));
        return na;
    }
    protected static Object[] realloc(Object[] a) {
        return realloc(a, Math.max(10, a.length*2));
    }

    protected static int[] realloc(int[] a, int len) {
        if (len == 0)  return noInts;
        if (a == null)  return new int[len];
        int[] na = new int[len];
        System.arraycopy(a, 0, na, 0, Math.min(a.length, len));
        return na;
    }
    protected static int[] realloc(int[] a) {
        return realloc(a, Math.max(10, a.length*2));
    }

    protected static byte[] realloc(byte[] a, int len) {
        if (len == 0)  return noBytes;
        if (a == null)  return new byte[len];
        byte[] na = new byte[len];
        System.arraycopy(a, 0, na, 0, Math.min(a.length, len));
        return na;
    }
    protected static byte[] realloc(byte[] a) {
        return realloc(a, Math.max(10, a.length*2));
    }
}

com/sun/java/util/jar/pack/BandStructure.java

 

JDK 11 java.compiler.jmod - Compiler Module

JDK 11 Modules List

Download and Use JDK 11

⇑⇑ FAQ for JDK (Java Development Kit)

2020-05-29, 38523👍, 0💬