iText 5 itextpdf.jar Source Code

itextpdf.jar is a component in iText 5 Java library to provide core functionalities. iText Java library allows you to generate and manage PDF documents.

The Source Code files are provided at iText GitHub site.

You can compile it to generate your JAR file, using pom.xml as the build configuration file.

The source code of itextpdf-5.5.14.jar is provided below:

✍: FYIcenter.com

com/itextpdf/text/pdf/hyphenation/TernaryTree.java

/*
 * Copyright 1999-2004 The Apache Software Foundation.
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package com.itextpdf.text.pdf.hyphenation;

import java.io.Serializable;
import java.util.Enumeration;
import java.util.Stack;

/**
 * <h2>Ternary Search Tree.</h2>
 *
 * <p>A ternary search tree is a hybrid between a binary tree and
 * a digital search tree (trie). Keys are limited to strings.
 * A data value of type char is stored in each leaf node.
 * It can be used as an index (or pointer) to the data.
 * Branches that only contain one key are compressed to one node
 * by storing a pointer to the trailer substring of the key.
 * This class is intended to serve as base class or helper class
 * to implement Dictionary collections or the like. Ternary trees
 * have some nice properties as the following: the tree can be
 * traversed in sorted order, partial matches (wildcard) can be
 * implemented, retrieval of all keys within a given distance
 * from the target, etc. The storage requirements are higher than
 * a binary tree but a lot less than a trie. Performance is
 * comparable with a hash table, sometimes it outperforms a hash
 * function (most of the time can determine a miss faster than a hash).</p>
 *
 * <p>The main purpose of this java port is to serve as a base for
 * implementing TeX's hyphenation algorithm (see The TeXBook,
 * appendix H). Each language requires from 5000 to 15000 hyphenation
 * patterns which will be keys in this tree. The strings patterns
 * are usually small (from 2 to 5 characters), but each char in the
 * tree is stored in a node. Thus memory usage is the main concern.
 * We will sacrifice 'elegance' to keep memory requirements to the
 * minimum. Using java's char type as pointer (yes, I know pointer
 * it is a forbidden word in java) we can keep the size of the node
 * to be just 8 bytes (3 pointers and the data char). This gives
 * room for about 65000 nodes. In my tests the English patterns
 * took 7694 nodes and the German patterns 10055 nodes,
 * so I think we are safe.</p>
 *
 * <p>All said, this is a map with strings as keys and char as value.
 * Pretty limited!. It can be extended to a general map by
 * using the string representation of an object and using the
 * char value as an index to an array that contains the object
 * values.</p>
 *
 * @author cav@uniscope.co.jp
 */

public class TernaryTree implements Cloneable, Serializable {

    /**
     * We use 4 arrays to represent a node. I guess I should have created
     * a proper node class, but somehow Knuth's pascal code made me forget
     * we now have a portable language with virtual memory management and
     * automatic garbage collection! And now is kind of late, furthermore,
     * if it ain't broken, don't fix it.
     */

    private static final long serialVersionUID = 5313366505322983510L;

	/**
     * Pointer to low branch and to rest of the key when it is
     * stored directly in this node, we don't have unions in java!
     */
    protected char[] lo;

    /**
     * Pointer to high branch.
     */
    protected char[] hi;

    /**
     * Pointer to equal branch and to data when this node is a string terminator.
     */
    protected char[] eq;

    /**
     * <P>The character stored in this node: splitchar.
     * Two special values are reserved:</P>
     * <ul><li>0x0000 as string terminator</li>
     * <li>0xFFFF to indicate that the branch starting at
     * this node is compressed</li></ul>
     * <p>This shouldn't be a problem if we give the usual semantics to
     * strings since 0xFFFF is guaranteed not to be an Unicode character.</p>
     */
    protected char[] sc;

    /**
     * This vector holds the trailing of the keys when the branch is compressed.
     */
    protected CharVector kv;

    protected char root;
    protected char freenode;
    protected int length;    // number of items in tree

    protected static final int BLOCK_SIZE = 2048;    // allocation size for arrays

    TernaryTree() {
        init();
    }

    protected void init() {
        root = 0;
        freenode = 1;
        length = 0;
        lo = new char[BLOCK_SIZE];
        hi = new char[BLOCK_SIZE];
        eq = new char[BLOCK_SIZE];
        sc = new char[BLOCK_SIZE];
        kv = new CharVector();
    }

    /**
     * Branches are initially compressed, needing
     * one node per key plus the size of the string
     * key. They are decompressed as needed when
     * another key with same prefix
     * is inserted. This saves a lot of space,
     * specially for long keys.
     */
    public void insert(String key, char val) {
        // make sure we have enough room in the arrays
        int len = key.length()
                  + 1;    // maximum number of nodes that may be generated
        if (freenode + len > eq.length) {
            redimNodeArrays(eq.length + BLOCK_SIZE);
        }
        char strkey[] = new char[len--];
        key.getChars(0, len, strkey, 0);
        strkey[len] = 0;
        root = insert(root, strkey, 0, val);
    }

    public void insert(char[] key, int start, char val) {
        int len = strlen(key) + 1;
        if (freenode + len > eq.length) {
            redimNodeArrays(eq.length + BLOCK_SIZE);
        }
        root = insert(root, key, start, val);
    }

    /**
     * The actual insertion function, recursive version.
     */
    private char insert(char p, char[] key, int start, char val) {
        int len = strlen(key, start);
        if (p == 0) {
            // this means there is no branch, this node will start a new branch.
            // Instead of doing that, we store the key somewhere else and create
            // only one node with a pointer to the key
            p = freenode++;
            eq[p] = val;           // holds data
            length++;
            hi[p] = 0;
            if (len > 0) {
                sc[p] = 0xFFFF;    // indicates branch is compressed
                lo[p] = (char)kv.alloc(len
                                       + 1);    // use 'lo' to hold pointer to key
                strcpy(kv.getArray(), lo[p], key, start);
            } else {
                sc[p] = 0;
                lo[p] = 0;
            }
            return p;
        }

        if (sc[p] == 0xFFFF) {
            // branch is compressed: need to decompress
            // this will generate garbage in the external key array
            // but we can do some garbage collection later
            char pp = freenode++;
            lo[pp] = lo[p];    // previous pointer to key
            eq[pp] = eq[p];    // previous pointer to data
            lo[p] = 0;
            if (len > 0) {
                sc[p] = kv.get(lo[pp]);
                eq[p] = pp;
                lo[pp]++;
                if (kv.get(lo[pp]) == 0) {
                    // key completely decompressed leaving garbage in key array
                    lo[pp] = 0;
                    sc[pp] = 0;
                    hi[pp] = 0;
                } else {
                    // we only got first char of key, rest is still there
                    sc[pp] = 0xFFFF;
                }
            } else {
                // In this case we can save a node by swapping the new node
                // with the compressed node
                sc[pp] = 0xFFFF;
                hi[p] = pp;
                sc[p] = 0;
                eq[p] = val;
                length++;
                return p;
            }
        }
        char s = key[start];
        if (s < sc[p]) {
            lo[p] = insert(lo[p], key, start, val);
        } else if (s == sc[p]) {
            if (s != 0) {
                eq[p] = insert(eq[p], key, start + 1, val);
            } else {
                // key already in tree, overwrite data
                eq[p] = val;
            }
        } else {
            hi[p] = insert(hi[p], key, start, val);
        }
        return p;
    }

    /**
     * Compares 2 null terminated char arrays
     */
    public static int strcmp(char[] a, int startA, char[] b, int startB) {
        for (; a[startA] == b[startB]; startA++, startB++) {
            if (a[startA] == 0) {
                return 0;
            }
        }
        return a[startA] - b[startB];
    }

    /**
     * Compares a string with null terminated char array
     */
    public static int strcmp(String str, char[] a, int start) {
        int i, d, len = str.length();
        for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
            d = str.charAt(i) - a[start + i];
            if (d != 0) {
                return d;
            }
            if (a[start + i] == 0) {
                return d;
        }
        }
        if (a[start + i] != 0) {
            return -a[start + i];
        }
        return 0;

    }

    public static void strcpy(char[] dst, int di, char[] src, int si) {
        while (src[si] != 0) {
            dst[di++] = src[si++];
        }
        dst[di] = 0;
    }

    public static int strlen(char[] a, int start) {
        int len = 0;
        for (int i = start; i < a.length && a[i] != 0; i++) {
            len++;
        }
        return len;
    }

    public static int strlen(char[] a) {
        return strlen(a, 0);
    }

    public int find(String key) {
        int len = key.length();
        char strkey[] = new char[len + 1];
        key.getChars(0, len, strkey, 0);
        strkey[len] = 0;

        return find(strkey, 0);
    }

    public int find(char[] key, int start) {
        int d;
        char p = root;
        int i = start;
        char c;

        while (p != 0) {
            if (sc[p] == 0xFFFF) {
                if (strcmp(key, i, kv.getArray(), lo[p]) == 0) {
                    return eq[p];
                } else {
                    return -1;
            }
            }
            c = key[i];
            d = c - sc[p];
            if (d == 0) {
                if (c == 0) {
                    return eq[p];
                }
                i++;
                p = eq[p];
            } else if (d < 0) {
                p = lo[p];
            } else {
                p = hi[p];
        }
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public boolean knows(String key) {
        return find(key) >= 0;
    }

    // redimension the arrays
    private void redimNodeArrays(int newsize) {
        int len = newsize < lo.length ? newsize : lo.length;
        char[] na = new char[newsize];
        System.arraycopy(lo, 0, na, 0, len);
        lo = na;
        na = new char[newsize];
        System.arraycopy(hi, 0, na, 0, len);
        hi = na;
        na = new char[newsize];
        System.arraycopy(eq, 0, na, 0, len);
        eq = na;
        na = new char[newsize];
        System.arraycopy(sc, 0, na, 0, len);
        sc = na;
    }

    public int size() {
        return length;
    }

    @Override
    public Object clone() {
        TernaryTree t = new TernaryTree();
        t.lo = this.lo.clone();
        t.hi = this.hi.clone();
        t.eq = this.eq.clone();
        t.sc = this.sc.clone();
        t.kv = (CharVector)this.kv.clone();
        t.root = this.root;
        t.freenode = this.freenode;
        t.length = this.length;

        return t;
    }

    /**
     * Recursively insert the median first and then the median of the
     * lower and upper halves, and so on in order to get a balanced
     * tree. The array of keys is assumed to be sorted in ascending
     * order.
     */
    protected void insertBalanced(String[] k, char[] v, int offset, int n) {
        int m;
        if (n < 1) {
            return;
        }
        m = n >> 1;

        insert(k[m + offset], v[m + offset]);
        insertBalanced(k, v, offset, m);

        insertBalanced(k, v, offset + m + 1, n - m - 1);
    }


    /**
     * Balance the tree for best search performance
     */
    public void balance() {
        // System.out.print("Before root splitchar = "); System.out.println(sc[root]);

        int i = 0, n = length;
        String[] k = new String[n];
        char[] v = new char[n];
        Iterator iter = new Iterator();
        while (iter.hasMoreElements()) {
            v[i] = iter.getValue();
            k[i++] = iter.nextElement();
        }
        init();
        insertBalanced(k, v, 0, n);

        // With uniform letter distribution sc[root] should be around 'm'
        // System.out.print("After root splitchar = "); System.out.println(sc[root]);
    }

    /**
     * Each node stores a character (splitchar) which is part of
     * some key(s). In a compressed branch (one that only contain
     * a single string key) the trailer of the key which is not
     * already in nodes is stored  externally in the kv array.
     * As items are inserted, key substrings decrease.
     * Some substrings may completely  disappear when the whole
     * branch is totally decompressed.
     * The tree is traversed to find the key substrings actually
     * used. In addition, duplicate substrings are removed using
     * a map (implemented with a TernaryTree!).
     *
     */
    public void trimToSize() {
        // first balance the tree for best performance
        balance();

        // redimension the node arrays
        redimNodeArrays(freenode);

        // ok, compact kv array
        CharVector kx = new CharVector();
        kx.alloc(1);
        TernaryTree map = new TernaryTree();
        compact(kx, map, root);
        kv = kx;
        kv.trimToSize();
    }

    private void compact(CharVector kx, TernaryTree map, char p) {
        int k;
        if (p == 0) {
            return;
        }
        if (sc[p] == 0xFFFF) {
            k = map.find(kv.getArray(), lo[p]);
            if (k < 0) {
                k = kx.alloc(strlen(kv.getArray(), lo[p]) + 1);
                strcpy(kx.getArray(), k, kv.getArray(), lo[p]);
                map.insert(kx.getArray(), k, (char)k);
            }
            lo[p] = (char)k;
        } else {
            compact(kx, map, lo[p]);
            if (sc[p] != 0) {
                compact(kx, map, eq[p]);
            }
            compact(kx, map, hi[p]);
        }
    }


    public Enumeration<String> keys() {
        return new Iterator();
    }

    public class Iterator implements Enumeration<String> {

        /**
         * current node index
         */
        int cur;

        /**
         * current key
         */
        String curkey;

        private class Item implements Cloneable {
            char parent;
            char child;

            public Item() {
                parent = 0;
                child = 0;
            }

            public Item(char p, char c) {
                parent = p;
                child = c;
            }

            @Override
            public Item clone() {
                return new Item(parent, child);
            }

        }

        /**
         * Node stack
         */
        Stack<Item> ns;

        /**
         * key stack implemented with a StringBuffer
         */
        StringBuffer ks;

        public Iterator() {
            cur = -1;
            ns = new Stack<Item>();
            ks = new StringBuffer();
            rewind();
        }

        public void rewind() {
            ns.removeAllElements();
            ks.setLength(0);
            cur = root;
            run();
        }

        public String nextElement() {
            String res = curkey;
            cur = up();
            run();
            return res;
        }

        public char getValue() {
            if (cur >= 0) {
                return eq[cur];
            }
            return 0;
        }

        public boolean hasMoreElements() {
            return cur != -1;
        }

        /**
         * traverse upwards
         */
        private int up() {
            Item i = new Item();
            int res = 0;

            if (ns.empty()) {
                return -1;
            }

            if (cur != 0 && sc[cur] == 0) {
                return lo[cur];
            }

            boolean climb = true;

            while (climb) {
                i = ns.pop();
                i.child++;
                switch (i.child) {
                case 1:
                    if (sc[i.parent] != 0) {
                        res = eq[i.parent];
                        ns.push(i.clone());
                        ks.append(sc[i.parent]);
                    } else {
                        i.child++;
                        ns.push(i.clone());
                        res = hi[i.parent];
                    }
                    climb = false;
                    break;

                case 2:
                    res = hi[i.parent];
                    ns.push(i.clone());
                    if (ks.length() > 0) {
                        ks.setLength(ks.length() - 1);    // pop
                    }
                    climb = false;
                    break;

                default:
                    if (ns.empty()) {
                        return -1;
                    }
                    climb = true;
                    break;
                }
            }
            return res;
        }

        /**
         * traverse the tree to find next key
         */
        private int run() {
            if (cur == -1) {
                return -1;
            }

            boolean leaf = false;
            while (true) {
                // first go down on low branch until leaf or compressed branch
                while (cur != 0) {
                    if (sc[cur] == 0xFFFF) {
                        leaf = true;
                        break;
                    }
                    ns.push(new Item((char)cur, '\u0000'));
                    if (sc[cur] == 0) {
                        leaf = true;
                        break;
                    }
                    cur = lo[cur];
                }
                if (leaf) {
                    break;
                }
                    // nothing found, go up one node and try again
                cur = up();
                if (cur == -1) {
                    return -1;
                }
            }
            // The current node should be a data node and
            // the key should be in the key stack (at least partially)
            StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer(ks.toString());
            if (sc[cur] == 0xFFFF) {
                int p = lo[cur];
                while (kv.get(p) != 0) {
                    buf.append(kv.get(p++));
            }
            }
            curkey = buf.toString();
            return 0;
        }

    }

    public void printStats() {
        System.out.println("Number of keys = " + Integer.toString(length));
        System.out.println("Node count = " + Integer.toString(freenode));
        // System.out.println("Array length = " + Integer.toString(eq.length));
        System.out.println("Key Array length = "
                           + Integer.toString(kv.length()));

        /*
         * for(int i=0; i<kv.length(); i++)
         * if ( kv.get(i) != 0 )
         * System.out.print(kv.get(i));
         * else
         * System.out.println("");
         * System.out.println("Keys:");
         * for(Enumeration enum = keys(); enum.hasMoreElements(); )
         * System.out.println(enum.nextElement());
         */

    }

/*    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        TernaryTree tt = new TernaryTree();
        tt.insert("Carlos", 'C');
        tt.insert("Car", 'r');
        tt.insert("palos", 'l');
        tt.insert("pa", 'p');
        tt.trimToSize();
        System.out.println((char)tt.find("Car"));
        System.out.println((char)tt.find("Carlos"));
        System.out.println((char)tt.find("alto"));
        tt.printStats();
    }*/

}

com/itextpdf/text/pdf/hyphenation/TernaryTree.java

 

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2021-07-03, 47708👍, 0💬